课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.to drive in heavy traffic
在车辆拥挤的路上驾驶

heavy在这里表示“大量的”、“多的”、“密集的”:
Traffic is heavier on this road than on the other one.
这条路上的交通比另一条路上拥挤。

2.…I began to acquire confidence.
……我开始有了信心。

acquire通常表示通过努力“获得”、“学到(知识、技术、语言等)”,也可用来表示“养成(习惯等)”:
Mary acquired a good knowledge of Chinese in five years' time.
5年之内玛丽学会了汉语。

Tom acquired a habit of smoking.
汤姆养成了抽烟的习惯。

3.Sure that I had passed…
确信我已通过考试……

句首省略了分词being或feeling,在句中作状语(与分词结构作状语的情况类似):
Interested in the story, he finished reading the book in two hours.
由于对故事(情节)感兴趣,他两个小时就把那本书读完了。

4.The examiner must have been pleased with my performance…
主考人对我的驾驶想必是满意的……

must have been表示对过去的事情进行猜测。 performance在这里表示“表现”、“表演”、“工作情况”等。(cf. 第13课词汇学习)表示“对……满意”时可以用be pleased with:
They are pleased with his work.
他们对他的工作满意。

The manager isn't very pleased with his secretary.
经理对他的秘书不太满意。

5.Let us suppose that…
让我们假设……

suppose表示“假设”、“设定”时经常用于“let us suppose that”这个结构:
Let us suppose that there is a forest fire.
让我们假设发生了森林火灾。

6.in a mournful voice
以悲伤的声调

in a… voice 表示“以……的声调”:
He told them the news in a sad/excited voice.
他用悲伤的/激动的声调把这消息告诉了他们。

语法 Grammar in use

被动语态(6)

(1)在第10课第21课第34课第45课第58课的语法中,我们学习了被动语态的基本形式、它与情态助动词的连用、它在动词+宾语+不定式结构中的使用以及它在过去完成时中的使用:

Recently it was damaged by a visitor.
最近它被一个客人弄坏了。(一般过去时)

Passing planes can be heard night and day.
过往飞机日夜不绝于耳。(与情态助动词连用)

Over a hundred people must have been driven away from their homes by the noise.
有一百多人肯定是被噪音逼得已经弃家远去。(must与被动语态的完成式连用)

The bicycle was being sent to his home by train.
人们正用火车给他把自行车送回家。(被动语态用于过去进行时)

He never expected the thief to be arrested.
他从未指望那小偷能被逮着。(被动语态用于复合宾语中的不定式结构中)

The whole village soon learnt that a large sum of money had been lost.
整个村子很快知道,有一大笔钱丢失了。(用于过去完成时)

(2)被动语态还可以用于介词+动名词结构中。介词(after, before, on)+动名词这个结构通常相当于一个时间状语从句。如果两个动作中有一个在另一个开始之前已经完成,则可以用
after+动名词的完成式表示第1个动作;如果只表示先后顺序,则可用after(或 before)+动名词结构; on+动名词通常表示两个动作几乎同时发生:

After having been instructed to drive out of town, I began to acquire confidence.
在接到把车开出城的指令后,我开始有了信心。

The man called the police after being robbed.
那人遭抢劫后给警方打了电话。

He killed a child before being arrested.
他在被捕前杀死了一个孩子。

On/After being told that her mother was seriously ill, she hurried back to England.
她得知母亲病重后连忙回到英国。

被动语态用于介词+动名词结构在英语中是很正式的用法,一般不用于口语中。

(3)被动语态用于 want后面的不定式中时,to be可以省略:
I want the luggage fetched from the hotel this afternoon.
我希望有人今天下午去把行李从旅馆取回来。

want后跟被动语态时往往表示希望别人完成所说的动作。

(4)被动语态还可用于过去进行时,以强调动作的持续性:
She was being blamed.
她受到了指责。