本文选自吴应时的《应时新概念英语4》,是学习新概念英语第四册的辅助学习笔记,提供知识点精讲及解析,想知道具体都有哪些内容,那就一起来看看吧。

第一段语法符号详解:

1-1. It is… whose…

复合句,我们分成两个句子予以分析. 第一句为 it is… whose 的强调句,强调的是生活在水中或水域附近的动植物,被强调部分以 which 所引导的定语从句修饰动植物.

该强调句还原为非强调句可写为 The remains (of animals and plants) (which lived [in or near water]) are [most] likely to be preserved.

for 引导的原因状语从句中,为主系表结构.

1-2. and it is only… that…

本句是 it is… that 强调句,强调地点海河湖泊,第一句为 it is whose 的强调句,中间带有一个 where 引导的地点状语从句,该从句是主谓结构. that 后面这句可以看成主系表结构,表语由过去分词(词组)担任.

 

第二段语法符号详解:

1. fraction are preserved…before…or before…

复合句,主句主谓结构,后面有两个 before 引导的时间状语从句,两个状语从句是并列关系.

2. creatures live…, and it is… that…

并列复合句,第一句主句为主谓结构,后面接了 whether 引导的让步状语从句.

第二句 and 后面为 it is that 强调句型,主句为主系表结构.

3. The remains are preserved…

复合句,主句为主系表结构,后面有 for 引导的原因状语从句.

4. When you think of…, it is rarely that…

复合句,主句为主系表结构,it 为形式主语,that 从句为真正的主语.

前面的时间状语从句为主谓宾结构,包含 that 引导的定语从句修饰 birds,该句为主谓宾+宾补结构,另外还有一个 which 引导的定语从句修饰 small animals.

5. They decompose and (they) are destroyed or eaten…

并列句,第一句为主谓结构,就是 they decompose,第二句为省略了 they 的主谓结构.

 

第三段语法符号详解:

1. traces survive, when animal is preserved…

复合句,主句为主谓结构,后面有 when 引导的时间状语从句.

主句为 it is that 强调句,里面含有 as 引导的方式状语从句,as by 中间省了 as they survive by…

时间状语从句中,主句为主系表结构,含有一个 as 引导的方式状语从句,as in 中间省略了 as it is preserved in…

2. This is what…

复合句,主句为主系表结构,表语由 what 引导的从句担任,该表语从句中,含有一个 which 引导的定语从句定语从句为主谓+主补结构.

3. the remains were in his mouth, …that…

复合句,主句为主系表倒装结构,后面是一个同位语,该同位语由 that 引导的定语从句修饰,后面还有一个 before 引导的时间状语从句.

4. The mammoth has been restored…

简单句,主谓结构. 教材翻译平白无故冒出了已修复,可是英语中并没有交待.

5. Other animals were trapped…that…

复合句,主谓结构. 后面 that 引导的定语从句修饰 like 引导的定语,一系列的动物. that 引导的定语从句是主谓+地点状语.

后面 which 引导的定语从句为主系表结构,修饰 that 从句的地点状语.

6. what happened was that water collected…, and the bigger animals ventured out…, and were bogged…

复合句,主句为主系表结构,主语为 what 引导的主语从句担任,为主谓结构. 表语由 that 引导的从句担任.

该表语从句中含有两个独立的句子,其中第二个句子为并列句,主语均为 the bigger animals.

7. when…the carnivores came out and suffered fate…

复合句,主句为主谓宾结构,为并列句,第二个谓语 suffered 省略了主语 the carnivores.

前面有一个由 when 引导的时间状语从句,为主系表结构.

8. There are…

there be 句型.

also 和 as well 两个表达“也”的词语连用,一般来说在语法上算重复,但这里 as well 是省略句,还原为 there are also endless numbers of birds in the tar which suffered the same fate as well.