William Caxton  威廉·卡克斯顿
The other change is what is called the Great Vowel Shift. This was a systematic shifting of half a dozen vowels and diphthongs in stressed syllables. These two changes produced the basic differences between Middle English and Modern English. But there are several other developments that affected the language. One was the invention of printing. It was introduced to England by William Caxton in 1475. The invention of printing meant that there was now a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. Many new words and phrases entered the language. The period of Early Modern English was also a period of English Renaissance, which means the development of the people. New ideas increased. English language had grown as a result of borrowing words from French, Latin, and Greek. Next, let's talk about the Late Modern English. The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered 1/4 of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries.
另一个变化是元音大变位。这是系统性的变化,重读音节的6个元音和双元音都发生了变化。这两个变化在中世纪英语和近代英语中产生了基本区别。但是,其他发展也影响了语言。第一,印刷术的发明。印刷术是1475年,由威廉·卡克斯顿带到英国的。印刷术的发明意味着共同语言被印刷,书籍更便宜了,越来越多的人可以学会阅读。印刷术还促进了英语的标准化。拼写和语法已经固定,大多数出版社使用的伦敦方言变成标准英语。1604年,第一部英语字典出版。16世纪以来,英国人与世界各地民族联系,许多新词和词组成为英语的一部分。早期近代英语时期也是英国文艺复兴时期,这意味着人的发展。新思想兴起。英语成长为从法语、拉丁语和希腊语外来词的语言。 接下来,让我们谈谈晚期近代英语。早起近代英语和晚期近代英语的主要区别是词汇。晚期近代英语词汇更多,这主要有两个原因:第一,工业革命和科技需要新词产生;第二,当时英国处于全盛时期,拥有全球四分之一的领土,英语吸取了许多国家的外来词。