• 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(11一课/14)

    form of civil suit in these jurisdictions as well as in federal practice. 通过司法接受和明确的成文法条款,普通法、衡平法成为美国法律的一部分。今天,当普通法和衡平法在很多美国司法管辖区域已经合并(从1848年纽约开始)。结果是在美国司法管辖区域和联邦实践中只有一套民事诉讼形式,只有极少州继续保留大法官法庭。 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>

  • 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(14一课/14)

    Hints Case law In imprecise and confusing usage the terms "common law" and "common law" are often used synonymously, with the term "common law" in this usage connoting judge made law in general as contrasted with statutory law. "Case law" always connotes judge made law, while "common law" in contrast-- depending on the meaning intended--describes either the judge made law in common law subject matters or, more extensively, all judge made law. 普通法与判例法的混用,经常被用着同义词——是指“法官定法”,与成文法相对的概念。判例法总是指法官定法,而普通法相对来说,可以指普通法问题上法官制定的法律,也可以在更广泛范围内指所有法官制定的法律,这取决于使用者的用意。 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>

  • 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(1一课/14)

    Hints United States Old World The United States is at once a very new nation and a very old nation. It is a new nation compared with many other countries, and it is new, too, in the sense that it is constantly being renewed by the addition of new elements of population and of new States. But in other senses it is old. It is the oldest of the "new" nations--the first one to be made out of an Old World colony. It has the oldest written constitution, the oldest continuous federal system, and the oldest practice of self-government of any nation. 美国是一个即年轻又古老的国家,一个与很多国家相比很年轻的国家.同时,它因新人口的成份和新州的加入而持续更新,在此意义上,它也是新国家.但另一方面它是最古老的年轻国家——第一个从旧大陆殖民中脱胎而生的国家,它有最古老的成文法规、最古老的持续的联邦体系、最古老的自治政府惯例。 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>

  • 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(3一课/14)

    volumes of legal cases. 美国历史不仅复杂而且繁多。它不仅包括殖民时代的记载和国家从1776年开始的记载,而且包括当前50个州和各州与联邦之间错综复杂关系的记载。一个非常明显的例子,联邦最高法院判例汇编有350册以上,州法院判例汇编几乎同样多。想要探索美国法律历史的人面对的是5000多巨册的法律案例。 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>

  • 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(8一课/14)

    by the King, and later by his Chancellor as "keeper of the King's conscience", to afford relief in hardship cases. 诉讼形式的限制以及其提供的有限追索权导致衡平法和衡平判例法的产生。衡平法,用普遍的意思就是“行为公平”,决定公平且善良。首先由国王,以后由作为“国王良知守护人”的大法官作出,以便对难以解决的案例提供救济。 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>

  • 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(9一课/14)

    本期难度较大 Hints Court of Chancery In the 15th century, however, equity law and equity case law developed into an independent legal system and judiciary - Court of Chancery - which competed with the ordinary common law courts. Its rules and maxims became fixed and, to a degree, inflexible as in any legal system. Special characteristics of equity law include: relief in the form of specific performance, in contrast to the common law award of compensatory damages, the injunction a temporary or final order to do or not to do a specific act, the development of so called maxims of equity law which permeated the entire legal system and in many cases explain the origin of modern legal concepts. 15世纪,衡平法和衡平判例法发民成独立的法律制度和司法制度(大法官法庭)。大法官法庭与普通法庭并列存在。衡平法的规则和原则渐渐确定,与任何法律制度一样具有一定程度上的固定性。衡平法特殊特证包括:特殊履行的救济方式(与普通法获得补偿性损害赔偿金对比来说),形成所谓的衡平法准则,它浸透到整个法律体系和很多最初的现代法律概念的案例解释中。 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>

  • 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(7一课/14)

    upon the case" allowed and which later led to the development of contract and tort law. (在1227年)如果有法院令状,诉讼请求就会被强制执行。没有法院令状的诉讼请求就没有追索权,因而该诉讼请求就不存在。这一制度在(1258年)“牛津条例”禁止新令状的产生以后变得固定下来。除非“本案令状”被允许灵活性以外,后者后来发展成为合同与侵权法。 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>

  • 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(5一课/14)

    Hints American English The American legal system, like the English, is methodologically mainly a case law system. Most fields of private law still consist primarily of case law and the extensive and steadily growing statutory law continues to be subject to binding interpretation through case law. Knowledge of the case law method as well as of the technique of working with case law therefore is of central importance for an understanding of American law and legal methodology. 美国法律体系,像英国一样,从方法论上讲主要是判例法体系.私法的大多数领域主要包括判例法,以及广泛的不断增加的成文法。这些成文法继续通过判例法受制于有约束力的法律解释。对美国法律和法学方法论的理解,判例法知识和从事判例法工作的技巧是同等重要。 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>

  • 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(12一课/14)

    Hints States Only few States continue to maintain a separate chancery court. Nevertheless, the reference to the historical development is important because, on the one hand, it explains the origin and significance of many contemporary legal concepts (for instance the division of title in the law of property) and, on the other hand, it is still relevant for the decision of such questions whether, for instance, there is a right to a trial by jury (only in the case of common law suits, in other cases only before the judge). 不过,参考历史发展非常重要,因为一方面,它解释了很多当代的法律概念的意义和起源(例如财产法上所有权的分割)。另一方面,与很多问题的判决有很大关系。例如:陪审团的审判权(只有在普通法诉讼案中有,在另外案里只有在法官之前有。) 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>

  • 【法律英语】 第一课法律制度(6一课/14)

    Hints Common Law Roman law The Common Law is historically the common general law -- with supremacy over local law--which was decreed by the itinerant judges of the English royal court. The enforcement of a claim presupposed the existence of a special form of action, a writ, with the result that the original common law represented a system of "actions" similar to that of classical Roman law. 普通法在历史上是普通综合法,由英国皇家法院的巡回法官作出的,地位高于地方法。某项诉讼请求的强制执行是以法院令状这以特殊诉讼形式存在为前提的,而这就是最初普通法表现的“诉讼行为”构成的体系,类似于古罗马法。 这篇材料你能听出多少?点击这里做听写,提高外语水平>>