When it comes to IELTS reading, candidates are deeply convinced that this element is where most skills lie.As a matter of fact, the most efficient and essential strategy to handle reading part can be referred to as ‘exchange of synonyms’. This essay is in an attempt to assist candidates in surpassing barriers in the field of reading and hopefully can function as a reminder of one linguistic skill— flexible use or deployment of synonyms .
In broad terms, exchange of synonyms can be separated into three categories. Initially, the most crucial and most widely –encountered one can be identified as ‘synonyms with varied roots but with same part of speech’. A further and most obvious form can be known as ‘synonyms with same root, whereas the part of speech differs’ .The significance of final type can never be lessened since it is a virtual combination of attributes from the two aforementioned categories and can be referred to as ‘synonyms with varied roots and different part of speech’
Ⅰ.Specific Exemplifications of ‘Synonyms with Varied Roots but with Same Part of Speech’
A. Specific Exemplifications of ‘Synonyms with Varied Roots but with Same Part of Speech’ in Summary Completion with a Box
Cambridge IETLS 4test1 passage 3 question 39
… it was found that they made ----choices.
(One of the answer choice ‘similar’ is corresponding to a word ‘resemble’ in textbook. A further step is to check grammar and context meaning. Here by filling in the gap with the word ‘similar’, grammatical accuracy and appropriate meaning are well balanced. So this choice is correct.)
B. Specific Exemplifications of ‘Synonyms with Varied Roots but with Same Part of Speech’ in Multiple Choices
Cambridge IETLS 4test3 passage 1
Question 3: Which of the following is mentioned by the writer as a reason why children end up living on the streets?
(The answer choice is C. Starting by analyzing the question ,it is not hard for us to notice a frequently-encountered logic word reason ,then we can find its synonym cause and factor in passage. Then we read intensively nearby, ‘demand for income’ is identifiable in text as a substitute for poverty)
Ⅱ.Specific Exemplifications of ‘Synonyms with Same Root, Whereas the Part of Speech Differs’
A. Specific Exemplifications of ‘Synonyms with Same Root, Whereas the Part of Speech Differs’ in Classification
Cambridge IETLS 6test3 passage 3
Classify the following descriptions as relating to
A. caloric-restricted monkeys
B. control monkeys
C. neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys
33. Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic.
The synonym of this word, namely diabetes, is identifiable in text.
…. (Pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes…)….
Because the subject in this paragraph is caloric-restricted monkeys, in the text, ‘diabetes’ acts as a substitute for ‘diabetic’ in the question then after some analysis, the answer choice A is thought to be perfect.
B. Specific Exemplifications of ‘Synonyms with Same Root, Whereas the Part of Speech Differs’ in Flow Chart
Cambridge IETLS 6test3 passage 3 Question 39
Theory 1: cells less damaged by disease because fewer -------are emitted it’s not hard to find its corresponding word ‘emission’ in textbook. The whole sentence goes like this: one possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery‘s emission of free radicals,which are…. With the choice of free radicals, grammar and context meaning can also be assured, so the answer is correct.
Ⅲ.Specific Exemplifications ‘Synonyms with Varied Roots and Different Part of Speech’
A. Specific Exemplifications ‘Synonyms with Varied Roots and Different Part of Speech’ in YES /NO/NOT GIVEN
Cambridge IETLS 6test4 passage 1
13. It is legitimate for drug companies to make money.
The word legitimate is an adjective and means lawful and rightful. Answer is located in paragraph G of the text:
….in the end the fact remains that pharmaceutical companies have every right to make profit and will continue to find new ways to increase sales….
Here key words like ‘drug companies’ can be found in the text as ‘pharmaceutical companies’, ‘make money’ as ‘make profit’. Moreover, the synonym of legitimate is also noticed as have every right. Therefore, the answer should be YES.
B. Specific Exemplifications ‘Synonyms with Varied Roots and Different Part of Speech’ in Sentence Completion
Cambridge IETLS 5test4 passage 3
37. Plants that flower when days are long often depend on ------to help them reproduce.
In paragraph 4of the text, there is a sentence goes like this: long-day plants are adapted for situations that require fertilization by insects, or a long period of seed ripening ….
Fertilization is a ‘synonym with varied roots but different part of speech’ to reproduce
After some analysis related to grammatical accuracy and contextual meaning, the answer insects can be chosen...
As a matter of fact, it is not sagacious to master these three skills respectively. On the contrary, it’s essential and advisable for us to combine them and make flexible application. The significance of the combination of any two of them or even three of them can be revealed through the following examples in both individual question and a whole question type.
Ⅳ.Flexible Application of Combination of the Aforementioned Skill ‘Exchange of Synonyms’ in Both Individual Question or a Whole Question Type.
A. Specific Exemplifications of Combination of Two of the Aforementioned Skill ‘Exchange of Synonyms’ in Individual Question in Classification
Cambridge IETL S 4test4 passage3
A. between 1945 and 1950
B. between 1950 and 1980
C. after 1980
35. an acceptance of the role of the state in guaranteeing the provision of health care
In section D of the text, there is a sentence goes like this: it is also accepted that this right generated an obligation or duty of the state to ensure that adequate health –care resources are provided out of the public purse.
Here acceptance can be replaced as accepted in accordance with ‘synonyms with same root, whereas the part of speech differs’, so does provision and provided. Ensure can serve as a replacement to guranteeing .
Coupled with the contextual time as 1970s in this section, the answer is definitely thought to be B.
B. Specific Exemplifications of Flexible Use of the Aforementioned Skill ‘Exchange of Synonyms’ in a Whole Question Type
Cambridge IETL S 6test2passage2
Research carried out by scientists in the United States has shown that the proportion of people over 65suffering from the most common age-related medical problem is sing and that the speed of this change is.16. increasing.
(Explanation: researchers,…medical complaints in this age group –are troubling a smaller proportion every year. And the data confirms that the rate at which these diseases are declining continues to accelerate….)
It also seems that these diseases are affecting people in life than they did in the past.
(Explanation…. He says the problems doctors accepted as normal in a 65-year-old in 1982 are often not appearing until people are 70or 75….)
This is largely due to developments in .ne.
(Explanation ….clearly, certain diseases are beating a retreat in the face of medical advances….).
But other factors such as improved nutrition may also be playing a part.
(Explanation….but there may be other contributing factors .improvement in childhood nutrition in the first quarter of the twentieth century….)
Increases in some other illnesses may be due to changes in personal habits and to19. pollution.
(Explanation….An increase in some cancers and bronchitis may reflect changing smoking habits and poorer air quality, says researchers ….)
This research establishes a link between levels of ion and life expectancy.
(Explanation one interesting correlation Manton uncovered is that better –educated people are likely to live longer.)
It also shows that there has been a considerable reduction in the number of elderly people who are ed
(Explanation…. that represents a significant drop in the number of disabled old people in the population.)
Which means that the involved in supporting this section of the population may be less than previously predicted
(Explanation….suggesting that the graying of America’s population may prove less of a financial burden than expected.)
What can be concluded from the aforementioned paragraphs is by no means should we lesson the importance of a skill called ‘exchange of synonyms. Hence in the end of this thesis, an appendix as frequented-exchanged synonyms are supplemented.
Notes: red letters stand for answer, underlined words represent the occurrence of exchange of synonyms, and sentences in parenthesis demonstrate the existence of explanation:
develop 发展，增多：improve enhance advance(这前四变名词均在后加ment) promote boost upgrade update increase rise more better maximize grow progress
decrease 退步，减少：degenerated deteriorate demote diminish decline drop reduce reduction fall lower less minimize
keep维持：Preserve stay still remain sustain retain maintain
Vast 巨大的，辽阔的：large huge immense considerable significant
Potential 潜在的，可能的：possible liable
Outstanding 突出的，显著的：excellent noticeable extraordinary exceptional
Account for 解释，说明：explain
A supremacy至高，霸权：a dominance
Comprise 包含，由，构成：consist of cover include contain
be composed of be made up of
Prevailing 流行的：most frequent popular prevalent
Adequate 充足的：sufficient abundant
Interrupt 打扰，扰乱：interfere disrupt disturb