( C )
German Prime Minister Otto Von Bismarck may be most famous for his military and diplomatic talent, but his contributions includes many of today’s social insurance programs. During the middle of the 19th century, Germany, along with other European nations, experienced an unprecedented rash of workplace deaths and accidents as a result of growing industrialization. Motivated in part by Christian sympathy for the helpless as well as a practical political impulse(冲动) to get the support of the socialist labor movement, Chancellor Bismarck created the world’s first workers’ compensation（赔偿） law in 1884. By 1908, the United States was the only industrial nation in the world that lacked workers’ compensation insurance. America’s injured workers could sue for damages in a court of law, but they still faced a number of tough legal barriers. For example, employees had to prove that their injuries directly resulted from employer negligence and that they themselves were ignorant about potential hazards in the workplace. The first state workers’ compensation law in this country passed in 1911, and the program soon spread throughout the nation. After World War II, benefit payments to American workers did not keep up with the cost of living. In fact, real benefit levels were lower in the 1970s than they were in the 1940s, and in most states the maximum benefit was below the poverty level for a family of four. In 1970, President Richard Nixon set up a national commission to study the problems of workers’ compensation. Two years later, the commission issued 19 key recommendations, including one that called for increasing compensation benefit levels to 100 percent of the states’ average weekly wages. In fact, the average compensation benefit in America has climbed from 55 percent of the states’ average weekly wages in 1972 to 97 percent today. But, as most studies show, every 10 percent increase in compensation benefits results in a 5 per cent increase in the numbers of workers who file for claims. And with so much more money floating in the workers’ compensation system, it’s not surprising that doctors and lawyers have helped themselves to a large slice of the growing pie.
72.What probably contributed to Bismarck's introduction of the world's first workers' compensation law?
A .Making industrial production in Europe safer.
B. The pace of European industrialization.
C. His religious and political considerations.
D. The support of the socialist labor movement.
73.Why was it hard for the American injured workers to get compensation in the early 20th century?
A . They were lacking in the courage to seek compensation in a court of law.
B. Different states in the U.S.A. had totally different compensation programs.
C. America's average compensation benefit was much lower than the cost of living.
D. They have to present evidence that theirs bosses were responsible for the accidents.
74.Which of the following statement is TRUE about America in the 1970s?
A.The poverty level from families increased when the compensation system was in workers'favor.
B.More money was assigned to the compensation system to improve workers' living conditions.
C. There were fewer legal barriers for the injured workers to claim damages in a court of law.
D. Increasing compensation benefits caused the result that more workers claimed for damages.
75.It is implied at the end of this passage that _______________.
A . compensation benefits in America are rising rapidly to new heights.
B. the workers are not the only ones to benefit from the compensation system.
C. people from all walks of life can benefit from the compensation system .
D.money floating in the compensation system is a huge drain on the U.S. Economy.
Directions: Read the following text and choose the most suitable heading from A-F for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need.
A blue hole is a flooded sea cave with a hole that opens up at the land's surface. These cave systems form in carbonate rock, often on islands. Some blue holes have very special rock formations and water chemistry. Far below sea level, they contain some of the harshest environments on Earth, with no oxygen and no light. Yet these areas are filled with life forms that have adapted to the extreme conditions.
Blue holes get their name from the color some have when seen from the air. The color is usually a reflection of the sky on the water. Blue holes are the result of erosion in which water breaks down rock. Rain falling thousands of years ago contained chemicals which slowly wore away at the limestone landmass. These holes later filled with sea water as the sea level changed. The rising and falling of sea levels and the mixture of salt and fresh water further wore away at these cave formations.
These flooded cave systems can be found in the ocean, or they can be found inland. Ocean caves are affected by tides, so they always have water movement. But blue holes on land are very still. They have several layers of water, chemicals, and bacteria. The top layer of fresh water comes from rainfall. This layer acts like a cap on top of the layered mixture, and keeps out oxygen from the atmosphere. The fresh water floats on a denser layer of saltwater. Underneath this is a layer of poisonous hydrogen sulfide, produced by bacteria living in the water. Underneath this layer is anoxic seawater -- water that does not contain any oxygen.
Information gathered from these blue holes is helping scientists to increase their understanding of biology, archaeology and geology. But exploring these blue hole environments brings danger as well as discovery.Scientists are interested in these caves because oxygen-free conditions there are similar to those on Earth long ago, before oxygen existed on our planet.But there are many difficulties involved in diving into blue holes.
One reason blue holes have not been fully explored is that they can be extremely dangerous. There are many safety rules that divers must follow to help ensure their survival. First, divers must have training and experience to swim in these caves.Divers who explore a cave for the first time must establish a thin rope called a guideline. This line helps them to safely enter and exit the cave without getting lost.
Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
Squeezed into a small space with two other friends, I had a sense of pride to be able to be the mission commander of this space flight. I looked at my friends on each side and gave them a thumps-up we set out minds to bring our spacecraft to Mars.
Our objective was very important. It has been years since scientists began arguing about the possibility of existence of life on Mars. Many arguments arose, saying that the pictures of Mars, taken by various space explorations, had given them sufficient proof that only intelligent being could have made those structures. Others maintained that what looked like a face in the pictures was nothing more than a flash of lights and so the arguments continue without conclusion.
To prove this once and for all, an decision was made to launch an expedition(探险) into space. The truth about the possibility of life on Mars was about to be confirmed beyond any further doubt. Although no reports of an alien race was recorded, I could not help thinking about my reactions when I came to face to face with one of their kind. How would I greet them? What would I say? Would they be willing to understand the human race? I did not take to the thought of landing up on their lab tables, being the object of tests and explorations. How frightening a prospect!
My crew and I were the best among our group of trainees. We practiced hard together, training hand in hand, filled with a single aim, which is to fly safely to Mars and back. This feeling was tense and everyone was highly excited, as the day drew nearer. We were anxious to see what Mars was like but the uncertainty held us with fear. The training increased in intensity (强度) as everyone raced against time and practiced as much as possible.
The moment came and by in a flash. The countdown proceeded, the life-off was tense and soon we were deep in space, floating about freely and went about preparing the spaceship for the intended landing. Since the trip was scheduled to take about three years to arrive at Mars, we slept in a special room to prevent us from aging. So I drifted off to sleep peacefully and suddenly I felt some woke me up. We must have arrived at Mars and my crew was trying to wake me up.
I opened my eyes slowly and saw a familiar face. “Why would my English teacher wake me up?” I thought. Oh, no. Instead of medals and praise that I Should receive, all I had was a severe warning against sleeping in class and spent the rest of the lesson standing in a corner.
( Note:Answer the questions or complete the statements in No More Than 10 Words.)
81.The author giving a thumbs-up showed that ____________.
82.The objective of his mission was to ________________.
83.What would be done to end the argument over the possibility of life on Mars?
84.How did they get ready for the coming mission?