Body Language and Mind

Ⅰ. Introduction 
Body language reveals who we are.

Ⅱ. Nonverbal expressions of  (1) power and dominance
● feeling powerful: (2) expanding/opening up/stretching out
- e.g. athletes with arms up in a V sign
● feeling powerless: (3) closing up
- e.g. refusing to bump into the person nearby.
● behavior tends to become (4) complementary 
in a high- and low-power situation.
-people don't mirror each other.
● MBA students exhibit the full range ef power nonverbals.
一e.g. students with power have strong desire for (5) dominance
●power nonverbals are also related to (6) sex / gender

Ⅲ. Relationship between (7)body and mind
●the powerful are more (8)assertive, confident, optimistic

●hormones differ with (9)dominance and stress 

●an experiment:

- procedure:
-adopting high or low-power poses and completing items
- being given(10)opportunity to gamble

- having saliva tested

-(11)doninane hormone : much higher with high-power pcople

-an increase in (12) stress hormone in low-power people 

-hormonal changes: making brain(13)stress-reactive

IV. Conclusion
●behavior can (14)change our outcomes/change outcome
●before getting into stressful situations
一get your brain ready to(15)do the best



6-10 CDBDC



11-15 DCABD

16-20 DCABC

21-24 BACD


25. He knew how to act and conceal his feelings.

26. Frivolous and naive, for knowing little about proper dressing.

27. Journalism need professional persons with great aptitude.

28. Greeley was seldom believed in his party.

29. They were both incurable eccentrics.

30. Passionate for justice and loyal to the poor.

31. The hope of fighting against injustice.

32. He protests against injustice and never surrenders.


Leaming about cognitive grammar (CG), an approach to the analysis and description of language structure, is not easy. One reason  is vast literature that now exists in CG and in cognitive linguistics (1) more generally, thanks to limited acssibility, and its being situated   (2) in the Westem linguistic tradition, this poses special problems for Chinese scholars. Another factor is that CG, though is not implemented  (3) computationally or presented as a formal model, nonetheless  involves considerable technical detail. Understanding it at depth, or with any (4) degree of accuracy, required precision of thought and analysis as well  (5)  as the mastering of many terms and notations. The final source of dificulty (6) is that CG results fom non-standard ways of thinking language  (7) and linguistic investigation. In particular, it departs awey from tradition  (8) by viewing meaning as the starting point for analyzing grammar. and conceptualizatonas the basis for describing meaning. 

This book is hardly suficient for a thorough knowledge of CG  but may at least contribute to the process of learning about it. As (9) it only introduces the basic notions, its main purpose is to llustrate the famework's descrptive and explanatory potential through  extensive dscussion of their application to diverse facets of language strucure.  (10)

1、 vast 前加 the

2、 limited 前加 its

3、去掉 though 后 is ,或者在is 前加it

4、at 改成 in

5、required 改成 requires

6、notations 改为 notions

7、thinking 后加 about

8、去掉 away 

9、As 改为 Although

10、their 改成 its

Baiyangdian was once known as “Northern Jiangnan”, literally the southern type of water town in the North. But quite different from the village houses in the south of China, the design and construction of the cottages here have their distinctive features.  Village houses in the south have sloping roofs to stand the rainy weather, while the cottages here have flat roofs to dry the harvest in the sun. And, every time the water flooded, the villagers had to move belongings in the room onto the roof. These cottages are so close to each other and some are almost connected. (by Y.H.)