Alexander Fleming



Discoveries in science and technology are thought by 'untaught minds' to come in blinding flashes or as the result of dramatic accidents. Sir Alexander Fleming did not, as legend would have it, look at the mold on a piece of cheese and get the idea for penicillin there and then. He experimented with antibacterial substances for nine years before he made his discovery. Inventions and innovations almost always come out of laborious trial and error. Innovation is like soccer; even the best players miss the goal and have their shots blocked much more frequently than they score. The point is that the players who score most are the ones who take most shots at the goal -- and so it goes with innovation in any field of activity. The prime difference between innovators and others is one of approach. Everybody gets ideas, but innovators work consciously on theirs, and they follow them through until they prove practicable or otherwise. What ordinary people see as fanciful abstractions, professional innovators see as solid possibilities.
科学技术上的发明创造被“不知内情者”看作灵感的眩目闪现或戏剧性事件的结果。亚历山大•弗莱明爵士并不是像传说中的那样,看了一眼奶酪上的霉就立刻联想、发现了青霉素。他是对抗菌物质进行了长达9年的实验才有了这项发现的。发明及创新几乎都是艰苦的试验和失败的产物。创新就像踢足球,即使是最出色的球员也会痛失进球机会,其射门被挡出的机会大大多于进球的机会。 问题在于得分最多者正是那些射门次数最多的球员,而任何领域的创新活动都是如此。创新者与普通人的主要区别在于处理问题的方法不同。每一个人都有想法,但创新者会自觉地钻研他的想法,并不懈努力直到证明想法切实可行或不可行。普通人视为凭空想象的抽象概念在职业创新者眼里却具有坚实的可能性。