Passage 1

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:

People do not analyze every problem they meet. Sometimes they try to remember a　solution from the last time they had a similar problem. They often accept the opinions or ideas of other people. Other times they begin to act without thinking; they try to find a solution by trial and error. However, when all these methods fail, the person with a problem has to start analyzing. There are six stages i　First the person must recognize that there is a problem. For example, Sam’s bicycle is broken, and he cannot ride it to class as he usually does. Sam must see　that there is a problem with his bicycle.

Next the thinker must define the problem. Before Sam can repair his bicycle, he　must find the reason why it does not work. For instance, he must determine if the problem is with the gears, the brakes, or the frame. He must make his problem　more specific.Now the person must look for information that will make the problem clearer and　lead to possible solutions. For instance, suppose Sam decided that his bike does　not work because there is something wrong with the gear wheels. At this time, he can look in his bicycle repair book and read about gears. He can talk to his friends at the bike shop. He can look at his gears carefully.

After studying the problem, the person should have several suggestions for a possible solution. Take Sam as an illustration. His suggestions might be: put oil on the gear wheels; buy new gear wheels and replace the old ones; tighten or loosen the gear wheels. Eventually one suggestion seems to be the solution to the problem. Sometimes the　final idea comes very suddenly because the thinker suddenly sees something new　or sees something in a new way. Sam, for example, suddenly sees that there is a　piece of chewing gum(口香糖)between the gear wheels. He immediately realizes the　solution to his problem: he must clean the gear wheels.

Finally the solution is tested. Sam cleans the gear wheels and finds that afterw　ards his bicycle works perfectly. In short, he has solved the problem.

21.In analyzing a problem we should do all the following except ____

A) recognize and define the problem

B) look for information to make the problem clearer

C) have suggestions for a possible solution

D) find a solution by trial or mistake

22.By referring to Sam’s broken bicycle, the author intends to ____.

A) illustrate the ways to repair his bicycle

B) discuss the problems of his bicycle

C) tell us how to solve a problem

D) show us how to analyze a problem

23.Which of the following is NOT true?

A) People do not analyze the problem they meet.

B) People often accept the opinions or ideas of other people.

C) People may learn from their past experience

D) People cannot solve some problems they meet.

24.As used in the last sentence, the phrase “in short” means ____.

A) in the long run B) in detail C) in a word D) in the end

25.What is the best title for this passage?

A) Six Stages for Repairing Sam’s Bicycle.

B) Possible Ways to Problem-solving.

C) Necessities of Problem Analysis.

D) Suggestions for Analyzing a Problem.

Passage 2

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:

Stone tools, animal bones and an incised mammoth tusk found in Russia’s frigid　far north have provided what archaeologists say is the first evidence that modern humans or Neanderthals lived in the Arctic more than 30,000 years ago, at least 15,000 years earlier than previously thought.A team of Russian and Norwegian archaeologists, describing the discovery in today’s issue of the journal Nature, said the campsite, at Mamontovaya Kurya, on the　Ura River at the Arctic Circle, was the “oldest documented evidence for human presence at this high latitude. ”Digging in the bed of an old river channel close　to the Ural Mountains, the team uncovered 123 mammal bones, including horse, reindeer and wolf. “The most important find,” they said, was a four-foot mammoth tusk with grooves made by chopping with a sharp stone edge, “unequivocally the work of humans.” The tusk was carbon-dated at about 36,600 years old. Plant remains found among the artifacts were dated at 30,000 to 31,000 years.

Other archaeologists said the analysis appeared to be sound. But they cautioned　that it was difficult, when dealing with riverbed deposits, to be sure that artifacts had not become jumbled out of their true place, and thus time, in the geologic layers. They questioned whether the discoverers could reliably conclude that the stone tools were in fact contemporary with the bones. But in a commentary　accompanying the article, Dr. John A. J. Gowlett of the University of Liverpool　in England wrote, “Although there are questions to be answered, the artifacts illustrate both the capacity of early humans to do the unexpected, and the value of archaeologists’ researching in unlikely areas.”

The discoverers said they could not determine from the few stone artifacts whether the site was occupied by Neanderthals, hominids who by then had a long history as hunters in Europe and western Asia, or some of the first anatomically modern humans to reach Europe.In any case, other archaeologists said, the findings could be significant.If these toolmakers were Neanderthals, the findings suggested that these human relatives, who became extinct after 30,000 years ago, were more capable and adaptable than they are generally given credit for. Living in the Arctic climate presumably required higher levels of technology and social organization.

If they were modern humans, then the surprise is that they had penetrated so far　north in such a short time. There has been no firm evidence for modern humans in Europe before about 35,000 years ago. It had generally been thought that the northernmost part of Eurasia was not occupied by humans until the final stage of　the last ice age, some 13,000 to 14,000 years ago, when the world’s climate began to moderate. Dr. Gowlett said the new findings indicated that the Arctic region of European Russia was extremely cold but relatively dry and ice-free more than 30,000 years ago.

26.What is the significance of the discovery?

A) It shows that modern humans lived in the Arctic more than 3,000 years ago.

B) It shows that Neanderthals lived in the Arctic more than 3,000 years ago.

C) It shows the oldest documented evidence for human presence at such high latitude.

D) It shows human could use tools 30,000 years ago.

27.Why the team believed that the four-foot mammoth tusk was the most important find?

A) Because it was the longest tusk ever found.

B) Because there were signs left by human’s tools on it.

C) Because there were grooves on it.

D) Because there are not any mammoth tusk all over the world.

28.When did the Neanderthals extinct?

A) More than 30,000 years ago.B) After 30,000 years ago.

C) Before about 35,000 years ago.D) Some 13,000 to 14,000 years ago

29.Who were those toolmakers?

A) Neanderthals. B) Modern humans.C) Archaeologists. D) Not determined.

30.What’s the weather like in the Arctic region of European Russia more　than 30,000 years ago?

A) Moderate temperature, relatively dry and ice-free.

B) Extremely cold, relatively dry and ice-free.

C) Extremely cold, plenty of raining and ice-free.

D) Extremely cold, relatively dry and ice frosted.

Passage 3

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:

After watching my mother deal with our family of five, I can’t understand why　her answer to the question, “What do you do?” is always, “Oh, I’m just a housewife.” JUST a housewife?” Anyone who spends most of her time in meal preparation and cleanup, washing and drying clothes, keeping the house clean, leading a　scout troop, playing taxi driver to us kids when it’s time for school, music lessons or the dentist, doing volunteer work for her favorite charity, and making　sure that all our family needs are met is not JUST a housewife. She’ s the real Wonder Woman.Why is it that so many mothers like mine think of themselves as second-class or　something similar? Where has this notion come from? Have we males made them feel　this way? Has our society made “going to work” outside the home seem more important than what a housewife must face each day?

I would be very curious to see what would happen if a housewife went on strike.　Dishes would pile up. Food in the house would run out. No meals would appear on　the table. There would be no clean clothes when needed. High boots would be required just to make it through the house scattered with garbage. Walking and bus riding would increase. Those scout troops would have to break up. Charities would　suffer.I doubt if the man of the house would be able to take over. Oh, he might start out with the attitude that he can do just as good a job, but how long would that　last? Not long, once he had to come home each night after work to more household　duties. There would be no more coming home to a prepared meal; he’d have to fix it himself. The kids would all be screaming for something to eat, clean clothes and more bus fare money. Once he quieted the kids, he’d have to clean the house, go shopping, make sure that kids got a bath, and fix lunches for the next day. Once the kids were down for the night, he might be able to crawl into an unmade bed and try to read the morning newspaper.

No, I don’t think many males are going to volunteer for the job. I know I don’t want it. So, thanks, mom! I’ll do what I can to create a national holiday for　housewives. It could be appropriately called Wonder Woman Day.

31.By what means do the children of the author’s family go to school?

A) They take school bus.B) They take a taxi.

C) Their mother drives for them.D) Scout troop sends them to school.

32.If a housewife went on strike, which one of the following statements is NOT true?

A) Children would scream for something to eat.

B) No meals would appear on the table.

C) The scout troops would have a wonderful time.

D) The man of the house wouldn’t be able to take over.

33.In the author’s opinion, ____.

A) many males are going to volunteer for housewives’ work

B) housewives deserve a national holiday named Wonder Woman Day

C) the man of the house would be able to take over the housewives’ work

D) housewives are second-class citizens or something similar

34.The author’s attitude toward housewives’ work is ____.

A) critical B) indifferent C) ironical D) appreciative

35.The main idea of the passage is about ____.

A) housewives, the wonder women

B) what would happen if housewives went on strike

C) the replacement of women by men as housewives

D) the setting up of a national holiday for housewives

Passage 4

Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:

Children are getting so fat they may be the first generation to die before their parents, an expert claimed yesterday. Today’s youngsters are already falling prey to potential killers such as diabetes because of their weight. Fatty fast-food diets combined with sedentary life styles dominated by televisions and computers could mean kids will die tragically　young, says Professor Andrew Prentice, from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

At the same time, the shape of the human body is going through a huge evolutionary shift because adults are getting so fat. Here in Britain, latest research shows that the average waist size for a man is 36-38in and may be 42-44in by 2032.This compares with only 32.6in in 1972. Women’s waists have grown from an average of 22in in 1920 to 24 ins in the Fifties and 30in now. One of the major reasons why children now are at greater risk is that we are getting fatter younger. In the UK alone, more than one million under-16s are classed as overweight or obese — double the number in the mid-Eighties. One in ten four-year-olds are also medically classified as obese. The obesity pandemic — an extensive epidemic — which started in the US, has now spread to Europe, Australia, Central America and the Middle East.

Many nations now record more than 20 per cent of their population as clinically　obese and well over half the population as overweight. Prof Prentice said the change in our shape has been caused by a glut of easily available high-energy foods combined with a dramatic drop in the energy we use as a result of technology developments. He is not alone in his concern. Only last week one medical journal revealed how　obesity was fuelling a rise in cancer cases. Obesity also increases the risk factor for strokes and heart disease. An averagely obese person’s lifespan is shortened by around nine years while a severely obese person by many more. Prof Prentice said: “So will parents outlive their children, as claimed recently by an American obesity specialist?” The answer is yes — and no. Yes, when the　offspring become grossly obese. This is now becoming an alarmingly common occur　rence in the US. Such children and adolescents have a greatly reduced quality of　life in terms of both their physical and psychosocial health. So say No to that　doughnut and burger.

36.What does the word “sedentary (Para. 2)” mean?

A) sit still. B) eat too much. C) study very hardh. D) passive thinking.

37.Which statement is TRUE?

A) The average waist size for a man is 36-38in.

B) The average waist size for a woman is 30in.

C) In the mid-Eighties, more than half million under-16s in the UK are　classed as overweight.

D) The obesity pandemic has now spread to South America.

38.According to Prof Prentice, what are the reasons for the change in our　shape?

A) We eat too much and refuse to do physical exercises.

B) High-energy foods are easy to get and technology develops fast.

C) High-energy foods are the main diet and we use technology.

D) High-energy foods are easy to get and we consume less energy.

39.Obesity increases the risk factor of ____.

A) diabetes, short sight, cancer, strokes

B) diabetes, cancer, strokes, psychosocial illness

C) cancer, strokes, fatty, heart disease

D) strokes, heart disease, diabetes, headache

40.What does the author mean by “So say No to that doughnut and burger”?

A) Answering the question “will parents outlive their children?”.

B) The doughnut and burger should be banned.

C) We should lead a healthy life.

D) We should begin dieting.
Part Ⅱ

Passage one 短文大意

21. 答 案 D。

【参考译文】分析问题时，我们应该按照下列的说法去做，除了____ 。

【试题分析】判断题。

【详细解答】ABC三项可从作者对六个阶段的说明中找到出处。D项就是作者在第一段提出的they try to find a solution by trial and error.“用边失败边尝试的办法寻找解决方案”，这个阶段是在开始分析问题之前。

22. 答 案 C。

【参考译文】通过Sam的坏自行车的例子，作者试图____ 。

【试题分析】意图理解题。

【详细解答】作者以山姆修自行车为例，是要说明分析问题的六个阶段。其本意与自行车无关，因此C项符合作者意图。

23. 答 案 A。

【参考译文】 下列那个不正确?

【试题分析】判断题。

【详细解答】文中第一段有B、D项的出处;作者也讲到Sometimes they try to remember a solution from the last time they had a similar problem.其大意与C项“人们可从过去经验中获得教训”相同;惟有A项“人们不去分析所遇到的问题”是曲解第一句People do not analyze every problem they meet.“人们不会对遇见的每个问题都进行分析”，如果人们真的不去分析所遇到的问题，作者就不必写此文了。

24. 答 案 C。

【参考译文】最后一句话中的 “in short”指代的是?

【试题分析】指代题。

【详细解答】此处in short指的是“总之”，四个选项中C项含义有“一句话”之意，与题符合。

25. 答 案 B。

【参考译文】文章的标题最好的是?

【试题分析】主旨题。

【详细解答】全文以山姆修自行车为例，说明人们分析问题的六个阶段。与修理自行车无关，其中也没有提到分析问题时应该注意什么，A、D项可先排除;文章虽然讲到分析问题的必要性，但主旨是说明那六个阶段，而不是强调“分析”的必要性，C项只是局部问题;因此B项符合文章主旨。

Passage Two 短文大意

26. 答 案 C。

【参考译文】 发明的意义是?

【试题分析】判断题。

【详细解答】正如考古学家们说的：the campsite,… was the oldest documented evidence for human presence at this high latitude.这个发现证明人类很早就在极北地出现了，这是它的重大意义所在，C项符合。A、B两项未有定论，D项则可由别的考古发现证明，并不是这一次发现的意义所在。

27. 答 案 B。

【参考译文】为什么小组认为四只脚的猛犸象牙的发现是最重要的发现?

【试题分析】判断题。

【详细解答】文中对这只four-foot mammoth tusk 的描述是…with grooves made by chopping with a sharp stone edge, “unequivocally the work of humans.”即在这只猛犸象牙上有石器砍削的痕迹，可以证明是当时人类用工具对象牙进行了加工，也就证明当时人类会使用工具了。所以这只象牙的重要性是它的证据作用，即B项。A、D项文不对题，C项未指出真正的原因。

28. 答 案 B。

【参考译文】 穴居人是何时灭绝的?

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】文中倒数第二段指出，Neanderthals, …who became extinct after 30,000　years ago,说明尼安德特人是在距今3万年前以后渐渐消亡的，B项数字正确。

29. 答 案 D。

【参考译文】 谁是工具的制造者?

【试题分析】综合判断题。

【详细解答】纵观全文，考古学家对居住在此地的人种仍在争论，不能确定到底是尼安德特人还是现代人曾在此居住，所以D项正确。

30. 答 案 B。

【参考译文】3万年前，俄罗斯欧洲地带的北极区的天气怎样?

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】文中最后有Dr. Gowlett said the new findings indicated that the Arcticregion of European Russia was extremely cold but relatively dry and ice-free more than 30,000 years ago.说明30，000年前的俄罗斯欧洲部分是“奇冷无比，相对较干旱，不会冰冻”，因此B项符合。

Passage Three 短文大意

31. 答 案 C。

【参考译文】作者家里的孩子们是乘何种交通工具上学的?

【试题分析】本题是细节题。

【详细解答】文章第一段提到playing taxi driver to us kids when it’s time for school，意为“母亲为送我们上学而扮演出租车司机的角色。”即母亲开车送孩子们上学。

32. 答 案 C。

【参考译文】假如家庭主妇罢工了，下列那种说法不正确?

【试题分析】本题是细节题。

【详细解答】文章第二段提到如果家庭妇女们罢工，将出现很多问题，A、B项都提到了，D项也在第三段第一句提到，只有C项是与原文Those scout troops would have to break up. “童子军不得不解散”相反的。

33. 答 案 B。

【参考译文】在作者看来____。

【试题分析】本题是作者观点题。

【详细解答】从文中可知，A、C、D三项都与作者的观点相反，而 I’ll do what I can to create a national holiday for housewives.一句明确表达了作者的想法，与B项相符。

34. 答 案 D。

【参考译文】作者对家庭主妇的工作采取何种态度?

【试题分析】本题是作者观点题。

【详细解答】critical 指“批评的”;indifferent指“漠不关心的”;ironical指“讽刺的”;只有appreciative有“表示感激的”之意，符合作者的观点。

35. 答 案 A。

【参考译文】文章主题是____。

【试题分析】本题是意图理解题。

【详细解答】作者全篇都在向家庭妇女们表达敬意，表示理解;B、D两项过于片面，都只是作者讨论的一个部分而非全部，C项与作者观点相反;只有A项才全面总结了全文意图。

Passage Four 短文大意

36. 答 案 A。

【参考译文】 “sedentary (Para. 2)”的意思是?

【试题分析】指代题。

【详细解答】sedentary出现在Fatty fast-food diets combined with sedentary lifestyles dominated by televisions and computers could mean kids will die tragically young,…句意为“脂肪含量过高的快餐饮食，加上电视和电脑使得孩子们养成了sedentary的生活方式，极有可能大大缩短年轻一代的寿命”，“电视和电脑”是养成孩子们sedentary的生活方式的原因，由此可见，sedentary指“久坐不动”。

37. 答 案 C。

【参考译文】那一个陈述正确?

【试题分析】判断题。

【详细解答】文章第三段提到In the UK alone, more than one million under-16s are　classed as overweight or obese - double the number in the mid-Eighties.“仅仅在英国，就有100多万16岁以下的儿童被归为超重或者肥胖，比80年代中期多了一倍”，可见C项符合。A、B 项未指出这只是英国的现象;文中未提到南美洲是否也有肥胖问题，D项不对。

38. 答 案 D。

【参考译文】 根据Prof. Prentice， 我们外形的改变是因为____。

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】Prof. Prentice指出…the change in our shape has been caused by a glutof easily available high-energy foods combined with a dramatic drop in the energy we use as a result of technology developments.意为“导致我们体形变化的原因是，现代生活中高热量食物随处可见，随手可得，而科技的发展使得人们每天消耗的热量却大大减少”，符合这句句意的是D项。

39. 答 案 B。

【参考译文】肥胖增加了____的危险因素?

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】文章开头就指出diabetes“糖尿病”是肥胖引起的病症, 其后陆续提到cancer,strokes and heart disease, 最后还有…adolescents have a greatly reduced quality　of life in terms of both their physical and psychosocial health.即psychosocial　illness也与肥胖有关，没有提到“近视”，而且obesity本身就是fatty，因此符合的只有B项。 

40. 答 案 C。

【参考译文】 通过 “So say No to that doughnut and burger”作者表达了?

【试题分析】意图理解题。

【详细解答】此句意为“所以，就让我们向油炸圈和夹肉饼说‘不’吧”，这不是回答“孩子们的寿命是否会比他们的父母还短呢?”，其意图是呼吁人们要有健康的生活方式，不是要禁止油腻食物，也不是要人们一起减肥。因此C项符合作者意图。