Unit 6
Time allotment

SECTION A Bribery and Business Ethics
Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. grasp the main idea (this passage discusses the practice of bribery in business and lists the categories of bribery that exist.) and the structure of the text (the passage is organized in problem-solution pattern);
2. appreciate the writing techniques demonstrated in the text (listing, exemplification, deduction);
3. master the key language points ,sentence patterns, and grammatical structures in the text;
4. learn some translation skills
5. conduct a serious of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit.
Pre-reading tasks
1.Watch the video and then discuss the topic:
. Are there any practices of questionable morality in our college life?
The practices of questionable morality in college life can fall into three categories:
• The first category consists of bribes given to administrators of student records (学籍管理人) for better exam reports. An interesting example of such practice is provided by the story of a student who paid sums of money for an exam but ended up with Zhang’s hat on Li’s head.
• The second category involves all kinds of cheating in examinations.
• The third category covers payments made for the approval of authority concerning the briber’s vital interests such as further education.
While-reading tasks
A. Stucture of the text
1. In part one students are required to find topic sentences in para.1 para3, and para 4.
2. Find a transitional sentence in para 4.
3. In part two student are asked to pay attention to some key words:
 the first category consist of ;the second category covers; the third category involves;
4. Pay attention to the writing techniques: listing (finish Ex.8)
5. The organization of the text : problem and solution pattern
B. T draws Ss’ attention to the translation of some sentences
Background information
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
A U.S. government agency, whose mission is to protect investors and maintain the integrity of the securities markets. The Commission was set up by the U.S. Congress in 1933 in response to “Black Monday”, the Great Stock Market Crash in 1929. Its purpose was to restore investor confidence in the U.S. capital markets by providing more structure and government oversight. It is based on the concept that all investors, whether large institutions or private individuals, should have access to certain basic facts about an investment prior to buying it. To achieve this, the SEC requires public companies to disclose meaningful financial and other information to the public, which provides a common pool of knowledge for all investors to use to judge for themselves if a company’s securities are a good investment. It is believed that only through the steady flow of timely, comprehensive and accurate information can people make sound investment decisions. At present the SEC is comprised of five presidentially-appointed Commissioners, four Divisions and 18 Offices, with a total of about 3,100

The International Chamber of Commerce

The aim of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), founded in 1919, is to serve world business by promoting trade and investment, open markets for goods and services, and the free flow of capital Its activities cover a broad spectrum, from arbitration and dispute resolution to making the case for open trade and the market economy system, business self-regulation, fighting corruption or combating commercial crime. The ICC is made of a World Council (its governing body) and individual national committees and groups. Individual companies, corporations, professional associations as well as individuals can also join the ICC as individual members.

Text Analysis
Main Idea and Structure
Part I (Paras. 1-4)

Main idea?
Bribery and other questionable payments are on the increase in many countries. They seem to be based not on lack of business ethics but on business interests.
Devices for developing it? Exemplification
The author’s viewpoint in Para. 4: Bribery and other questionable payments are on the increase. The examples in support:The Chrysler Corporation revealed that it made questionable payments of more than $2.5 million between 1971 and 1976.Three hundred other U.S. companies had admitted that they had made payments of one kind or another in recent years.
Part II (Paras. 5-8)
Main idea?

The questionable payments are divided into three categories: payments made for political purposes or to secure major contracts; to obtain quicker official approval; and made to people who help with the passage of a business deal.
Devices for developing it? Listing
Para. 5 The first category consists of…
Para. 7 The second category covers…
Para. 8 The third category in
Part III (Para. 9-11)
Main idea?
To ban bribery, a code of conduct is favored by ICC, and even a council was proposed to manage it. But, its members are of different opinions. Anyway, bribery seems inevitable.
Devices for developing it? Deduction
Deduction General statement: Unfortunately, opinions differ among members of the ICC concerning how to enforce the code. (L. 61)
Specific descriptions: The British members would like the system to have enough legal power to make companies behave themselves. However, the French delegates think it is the business of governments to make and impose law. …
What is the text mainly about?
Bribery in various forms is on the increase and has become a fact of commercial life. On the whole, the bribery can fall into three categories: for political purposes or to secure major contracts; to obtain quicker official approval of some projects; and to obtain help with the passage of a business deal. To ban bribery, ICC favors a code of conduct. However, the ICC members are of different opinions. The headache is still there to stay in business.
How is the text organized?
The passage is broadly put into three parts: bribery has become a common occurrence in many countries, three main categories of bribery, and the efforts to ban bribery and the result. The whole passage is organized in problem-solution pattern. In the first part, the phenomenon (the problem) is described; in the second, the questionable payments are analyzed; and in the third, the efforts for solution and the result are presented.


Detailed Reading (language study)
PART ONE (problem)
1.
He was jailed on charges of bribery.
They bribed the waiter to find them a table.
He was accused of accepting / taking bribes from wealthy businessman.
2. sentence pattern
is a little (much / very) surprised (distressed / delighted / disappointed / excited /depressed ) to find / know / learn that…:
应用: 许多人对新组成的国家队里没有这位著名的运动员感到很吃惊。
1.
Many people were very surprised to know that this famous player was not included on the newly-formed national team.
3.The number of people who own private cars are on the increase in China.
4.translation (E-C)
T1(line 2) 他们通常没意识到在很多国家,形形色色的贿赂行为正日益增多。在某些国家,这已成为人们几百年来的生活方式

Meaning: are becoming frequent and it is traditional to bribe people in some ways.
5.信息技术对社会的巨大影响表明我们正生活在信息时代。
The immense influence of IT on our society makes it clear that we are living in the Information Age.
6. To put it simply, we accept their offer or go bankrupt.(express or state sth. In a particular way)

7. LINE 5
Meaning: a large sum of money, more easily and quickly , some of the procedures will go quickly and smoothly without delay.
If you pay up now, you will not be taken to court.

9. stand by : she still stands by every word she said.
I wouldn’t break the law for a friend, but I would stand by her if need be.
It is terrible to see so many people standing by when a lady is robbed in street.

10.T2(line 8).现在的问题是:你是被迫掏钱呢,还是坚持原则?
11.numbered bank accounts: a bank account is opened by using a number instead of the name of the depositor to keep secret.
12.在一个政治腐败泛滥的国度里,很容易产生这样的感受:有钱能办事,而有权则无事不能办。
In a state flooded with political corruption, it is difficult to resist the impression / feeling that while money will do something, power will do anything.
13.a fact of life: a situation that cannot be changed, esp. one that is unpleasant
14.T3(Line 22) 很容易产生这样的印象:贿赂以及其他可疑开支正日渐增多。的确,这似乎已成为商界的一个事实

15.sentence pattern
母爱是伟大的,也是无私的。仅举一例:据报道,一位瘦弱的母亲是靠卖血资助自己孩子读完大学的。
Mother love is great and selfless. To cite just one example, a thin and weak mother, as it was reported, financed her child through college by selling her blood.
PART TWO (analysis)
16.T4(line 28) 这一事实的披露,使克莱斯勒与其他300多家美国公司一样,向美国证券交易委员会承认自己近年曾有过某种形式的支出,像贿赂、额外打折
17.微软公司被指控违反反垄断法
The Microsoft Corporation was charged with violations of anti-monopoly laws.
18. 他们正同心协力去创造航天技术的新奇迹。
They are combining their efforts to work new wonders in space technology.
19. Meaning: IT was made known that it was also this company that was prepared to provide money for the U.S. government so as to get rid of the government of Chile.
20. close a / the deal: make a successful business arrangement
After two years of hard negotiations, we’ve at last closed the deal.
21.过分强调书本知识会削弱学生创造性思维的热情。
Putting undue stress on book knowledge will weaken students’ enthusiasm for creative thinking.
22..我们的钱应捐给那些受贫穷所困却很有天赋的孩子们。
Our donations should be made to those (who are) stuck in poverty but endowed with talents.
23.T5(line 41)据闻其他国家也是如此,向外国公司施压,要他们向党派组织的账户捐款。
24.加快教育改革速度的关键是更新教育理念。

The key to speeding up the wheels of educational reform is to renew conceptions of education.
25.T6(line 43)第二大类包括为促使政府加快对某些工程项目的正式批准而作的支出


26. sentence pattern
by the story of sb. who… 有个故事是说明
追求知识与寻觅爱情不可兼容。有个故事是说明这一观点的突出例子:我从前的同桌曾被认为是班里最优秀的学生,却早在初中时就将其希望之舟驶入了一个女孩的爱情港湾。现在他正陷入深深的懊悔之中。
Knowledge seeking and romance hunting can not go hand in hand. A striking example of the view is provided by the story of my former desk-mate who, once thought of as the most excellent student in my class, began to steer his boat of promise into the harbor of a girl’s love as early as when he was still in the junior middle school. Now he is drowning himself in deep-felt regret.
27.But we can give you one copy of that book with a preface of a large sum money.
28.我们的当务之急是如何防止各种类型的智能犯罪。
The most pressing affair for us now is how to prevent intellectual crime in all its forms.
PART THREE (solution)
29.T7(Line 58)这些准则试图区分真正为服务所付的佣金和事实上等同于贿赂的过高费用
30.is correct or proper
to make companies to act in a correct and proper way.
31.T8(line 66)在一家知名英国报纸上,最近有位作者指出 “企业已陷入贿赂的蛛网”,人人都 “贪赃枉法”.
Meang: A writer claimed recently that “the problem of bribery is so complicated that our industry cannot get out of it ”
And that everyone is “willing to accept money in a dishonest or illegal way”
30.Meang:
It is like being caught in a huge sticky web—the more you struggle, the more entangled you get.
He got caught up in the drug business.
(become involved in sth, often without wanting to)
31.On the stake: (slang) regularly taking bribe
You should square your practice with your principles.
Compare:
1.Firewood is scarce in many parts of the wood.
Today the plant is rare in its natural habitat.
2.It’s important to distinguish between buisness and pleasure.
I sometimes have difficulty distinguishing Spanish from Portuguese.
3.It’s like being caught in a huge sticky web—the more you struggle, the more entangled you get.
He got caught up in the drug business.
Post-reading tasks
A. Section B
1. Comprehension of the text
2. language points
encounter: v. experience (esp. sth. unpleasant) or meet (sb.) unexpectedly遭遇(某人); 遇到(困难、危险等)
Before they had gone very far, they encountered a woman selling flowers.
I encountered great difficulties in learning English grammar.
用 and连接的两个名词、指同一人或物或通常由两个部件配成的物品的表达法还有:
soap and water 肥皂水 fork and knife 刀叉 war and peace 战争与和平
bread and butter 奶油面包 wit and humor 机智和幽默 time and tide 岁月
horse and carriage 马车 ebb and flow 盛衰 trial and error 反复尝试
on sick leave: being away from work for illness 休病假
in favor: in support (of sb. or sth.) 赞同,支持
derive from: come from; get or obtain from 来自,源于,从······中得到
there is no point (in) doing sth.: a particular action has no purpose or would not be useful 做某事没有意义
provided/providing (that): conj. if, or only if 以······为条件, 假如
Provided (that) there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here.
B. Test oneself

For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence.
1. I said I would do it and I ____ my promise.
A) stand up to B) stand for
C) stand by D) stand up for

2. Mr. Morgan can be very sad ____, though in public he is extremely cheerful.
A) by oneself B) in person
C) in private D) as individual
3. Color-blind people often find it difficult to ____ between blue and green.
A) separate B) distinguish
C) compare D) contrast
4. Keeping what belongs to another ____ to stealing.
A) applies B) accounts
C) attaches D) amounts
5. The time taken on your journey, together with your ____, will enable you to calculate how far you have travelled.
A) distance B) rate
C) speed D) motion
6. The newly-built Science Building seems ____ enough to last a hundred years.
A) static B) sophisticated
C) steady D) substantial
7. Helen groups all people into two ____: those she likes and those she dislikes.
A) specimens B) categories
C) catalogs D) sectors
8. Fry rejected the accepted ____ of behavior and married one of his servants.
A) hint B) code
C) signal D) advice
9. We couldn’t see much because there was only a ____ light in the room.
A) delicate B) disguised
C) depressed D) dim
10. The truck driver was proved ____ of the crime.
A) indifferent B) independent
C) innocent D) inevitable
11. His argument does not suggest that mankind can ____ to be wasteful in the utilization of these resources.
A) resort B) grant
C) afford D) entitle
12. He takes a 10% ____ on all the sales he makes: if he sells goods worth $100 he gets $10.
A) portion B) proportion
C) concession D) commission
15. There are certain ____ on which you must interrupt people who are in the middle of doing something.
A) conditions B) occasions
C) situations D) environments
16. We had to ____ a lot of noise when the children were at home.
A) go in for B) hold on to
C) put up with D) keep pace with
17. The new regulation does not ____ until the first of March.
A) take into effect B) get into effect
C) put into effect D) go into effect
18. After dinner, the two men ____ into the study where they could talk freely.
A) retired B) restored
C) restrained D) resigned


Homework
1. recite para.3. and some useful expressions
2. exercise in the section A and section B
3. structured writing