If you're among the more than one million workers who've been laid off this year, finding a new job will require a strategy that differs from a typical search.
The competition may be stiffer than anything you've faced before, and you'll likely be asked difficult questions about your dismissal. Knowing where to look, how to set yourself apart and what to say about your situation could mean the difference between getting a job and sinking deeper into unemployment.
你也许会面临前所未有的激烈竞争, 而且应聘时对方可能会问一些为何你先前会被解雇这一类难以应对的问题。要想顺利找到工作、不致在失业的困境中越陷越深, 你就必须懂得从何处入手、如何让自己脱颍而出以及如何描述自己当下的处境。
A critical first step is to come to terms with your job loss, says Cynthia Shapiro, a career strategist in Woodland Hills, Calif., and author of 'What Does Somebody Have to Do to Get a Job Around Here.' Some people become angry, others insecure. While these reactions are normal, they can derail a job search should recruiters pick up on them. 'You have to take some time to mentally regroup,' says Ms. Shapiro.
Dave Klug加利福尼亚伍德兰德岗(Woodland Hills)的职业规划师、《求职必做之事》(What Does Somebody Have to Do to Get a Job Around Here)作者辛西娅·夏皮罗(Cynthia Shapiro)说, 关键的第一步是接受失业这一事实。有些人会因此而恼怒, 还有些人会失去安全感, 这些反应均属正常。不过, 如果招聘人员察觉到你有此种感受, 你在求职之路上就可能遭遇挫折。夏皮罗说：“你必须花点时间来调整自己的心情。”
Cast a Wide Net
Once you're ready to hit the pavement, consider that the wider you can look geographically, the greater your chances. To identify employers that are still hiring, start perusing local newspapers, trade magazines and business publications, advises Howard Seidel, a partner at Boston-based Essex Partners, a provider of career services. 'Some [layoff victims] stop reading newspapers because it can get depressing,' he says. But if you keep at it, 'you'll get a feel for what companies seem to be doing OK.'
一旦你准备开始找工作, 你就要想到，视野越宽, 机会就越多。波士顿就业服务公司埃塞克斯事务所(Essex Partners)的霍华德·塞德尔(Howard Seidel)建议,多看看当地的报纸、行业杂志和工商界出版物, 寻找有招聘意向的用人单位。他说, “有些人（失业后）就不再看报纸了, 因为报上都是令人沮丧的消息。” 不过如果坚持看报纸的话,“你就能够了解到哪些公司看来仍然运转良好。”
Don't rule out small businesses or those in struggling industries. 'There are some companies that are countercyclical,' says Mr. Seidel. Industries like health care and education are still adding jobs. Public accounting and financial advising are also continuing to do well, although their growth is more muted.
不要把小公司或目前处境艰难行业的公司排除在外。塞德尔说：“有些公司是逆势而行的。” 医疗保健、教育等行业的工作岗位仍在增加, 会计及理财顾问行业也持续看好, 只不过它们的增长势头有所减弱而已。
Another job-hunting method is to network. Recruiters in particular can offer valuable insight, regardless of whether they have any search assignments that match your skill set. 'They're very close to the market and tend to have an idea of what's happening,' he explains.
另一个找工作的方法就是建立人脉网路, 特别是猎头, 不管手头是否有适合你的职位, 他们都能够为你提供非常有价值和有深度的意见。塞德尔说：“他们处于招聘市场的第一线, 通常会对目前的状况非常了解。”
If you don't already have relationships with recruiters, now is the time to start developing some. Many search firms accept resume submissions through their Web sites, which can lead to a recruiter contacting you. But you can boost your odds of success by reaching out to recruiters directly. Since they typically prefer to meet job hunters through referrals, ask former colleagues, business associates, alumni and other members of your network for an introduction to a recruiter they have a relationship with already.
如果你尚未跟猎头建立起联系, 那么现在就应该着手做这件事了。许多猎头公司的网站都会接受简历, 在你投递简历之后就会有猎头跟你联络。不过如果你主动直接去找猎头本人, 成功的几率就会大大提高。猎头通常更倾向于选择那些有人推荐的求职者, 所以你可以去找找以前的同事、合作伙伴、校友以及其他关系, 让他们向熟悉的猎头推荐你。
Studies show that referrals lead to the highest number of job placements, so devote the majority of your search time to networking, says Annie Stevens, managing partner at ClearRock Inc., an executive coaching and outplacement firm in Boston. Responding to ads on job boards also ranks high, while attending career fairs delivers modest returns -- especially for experienced professionals.
清岩公司(ClearRock Inc.)是波士顿一家管理层人员培训及职业介绍公司。该公司的执行合伙人安妮·史蒂文斯(Annie Stevens)说, 研究表明, 通过他人推荐找到工作的成功案例最多；因此，你找工作时应把大部分时间用在建立人际网路上。通过招聘广告求职成功的例子也不少, 而招聘会带来的收获就不怎么显著了 ── 对经验丰富的专业人员来说更是如此。
When applying, avoid expressing bitterness or self-pity. Many layoff victims send cover letters that blame the economy for their job loss, says Ms. Shapiro. There's no need to even point out the fact that you've been laid off. 'If your last work day was in October, your resume will say that,' she explains. Plus, since so many workers have been handed pink slips in the past year, this information is unlikely to kill your candidacy upfront. While it can be helpful to explain why you were let go over others whose jobs were not eliminated, save those details for the interview and use the cover letter to describe your strengths.
在应聘时,不要发泄怨恨，也不要表现得可怜巴巴。夏皮罗说, 很多被解雇人员在求职信中将自己失业归咎于目前的经济形势。其实, 你根本没有必要特别点明自己是被解雇的。她解释说：“如果你上一份工作干到十月份, 你的简历里就已经写得很清楚了。” 而且, 在过去一年里遭到解雇的人多的是, 因此这一资讯并不会对你的应聘造成什么不利影响。向对方解释为什么是你而不是别人遭到解雇没什么不好，不过这些细节还是留到面试时再说，在求职信中只需强调你的优势就可以了。
Another faux pas many unemployed job hunters make: Sending introductory notes that overextend gratitude, says Ms. Shapiro. These include lines like, 'Thank you so much for giving me consideration,' which signal a lack of confidence. She suggests taking the opposite approach by conveying that employers should take advantage of this opportunity to recruit you. Just be careful not to come across as arrogant. Say something like: 'I look forward to hearing from you.'
夏皮罗说, 许多失业者在求职时常犯的另一个错误，就是在求职信开头说一些谦恭过头的话。“承蒙垂注, 感激不尽”(Thank you so much for giving me consideration)之类的话表明你缺乏自信。夏皮罗建议, 这些人应该反其道而行之, 给雇主这样一个资讯：聘用你将是他们的荣幸。当然,你也不要给人以妄自尊大的感觉。可以用诸如“静候佳音”(I look forward to hearing from you)之类的表达。
Meanwhile, show employers you're flexible and not fussy. A candidate for a senior consulting job at International Business Machines Corp. recently indicated to hiring manager Mayank Shah that she was willing to travel locally and abroad, as well as undergo training. 'There were many candidates with the same skills and experience, but what differentiated her was her can-do attitude,' he says. Many of her competitors made specific demands or agreed to adhere to certain requirements only in exchange for higher pay. Keep your requests for concessions -- like working only out of a particular office or during certain hours -- to a minimum. You can work up to those perks after you've proven yourself in the position.
与此同时,要给雇主这样一个印象：你是很容易变通的, 不会对工作挑三拣四。最近, IBM在招聘一位高级咨询顾问的时候, 一位求职者向招聘经理玛雅克·沙尔(Mayank Shah)表示, 她愿意出差, 去国外出差也可以接受, 还愿意接受相关培训。沙尔说：“其他很多求职者也有同样的技能和经验, 让她脱颍而出的是她那种什么都能做的态度。” 她的众多竞争对手都提出了具体的要求，或者同意在提高薪酬的条件下接受某些工作安排。尽量少提条件 ── 比如只在某个部门或某个时间段工作。只要你在自己的岗位上表现卓越，你早晚会获得这些特权。
Still, don't go overboard. Offering to do things you really don't want to do -- such as relocate anywhere or travel up to 100% of the time -- can turn off recruiters, warns Russ Riendeau, a senior partner at East Wing Search Group, an executive-recruiting firm in Barrington, Ill. 'When I hear that, I know it's not true,' he says. 'I know I'm dealing with a desperate candidate.' What's more, you could damage the relationship you have with a recruiter if he or she believes you and you later renege on your promises.
当然， 也不要过犹不及。伊利诺斯州巴陵顿(Barrington)东翼猎头公司(East Wing Search Group)的资深合伙人拉斯·李安德(Russ Riendeau)告戒说, 同意去做你压根儿不愿意做的事情 ── 比如到公司安排的任意地点工作, 或者一年365天都出差在外 -- 也可能会让对方对你敬而远之。他说：“听到这种话的时候, 我知道对方肯定是言不由衷, 也就知道对方是病急乱投医了。” 而且, 如果猎头相信了你、而事后你却食言的话, 你跟对方的关系也就毁于一旦了。
Some unemployed job hunters also hurt their chances by volunteering to take a significantly lower salary than what they earned in their last job. An offer to take a pay cut of more than 20% can suggest to employers that you're biding your time and would re-enter the job market in search of higher-paying positions once the economy improves, says Jeff Joerres, chief executive officer of outplacement firm Manpower Inc. Or, you might unwittingly imply that you're going to ask for a raise soon after coming on board.
一些失业的求职者会主动表示可以接受较前份工作低很多的薪酬, 这种做法很可能会让你功亏一篑。万宝盛华人力资源公司(Manpower Inc.)首席执行长杰夫·约雷斯(Jeff Joerres)说, 在雇主看来, 愿意跌价20%以上的提议表明，你其实是在伺机而动, 一旦经济好转, 你就会重入就业市场寻找薪水更高的工作。亦或对方会认为, 你在得到工作后很快便会要求加薪。
A better strategy is to wait for the hiring manager to raise the subject of salary. If the job pays less than what you previously made, respond with a plausible reason for accepting it. For example, you might say that you recognize what's going on in the economy and cite reasons why you're attracted to the position and the company. 'You want to project that you are facing reality and are comfortable with the situation,' says Mr. Joerres.
比较好的策略是等着招聘经理先提及薪酬问题。如果对方的提议比你先前的收入要低, 那你就要给出一个让你接受这一提议的合理理由。比如, 你可以说你了解目前的整个经济大环境, 然后一一列举出这家公司、这个职位吸引你的理由。约雷斯说：“你应该向对方表明, 你懂得面对现实, 而且对目前的安排感到满意。”
Finally, prepare an explanation about what led to your layoff. For example, you might tell the interviewer that your skill set wasn't critical to your last employer's survival, but that you believe it is for the organization you're now targeting -- and then explain why, suggests Mr. Joerres.
最后, 要准备好一套说辞来解释你被解雇的原因。约雷斯建议, 例如，你可以跟面试者说, 你的技能并非上一家公司的生存立命之本； 不过你相信，对于目前的公司来说却是如此 ── 然后再解释个中原因。
If you've been unemployed for a long period of time and a recruiter asks why, consider pointing out that you're being selective about your next move, says Mr. Joerres. Then describe how the position is a strong fit. Or you might explain that you opted to delay your search to spend time with family or take a class, suggests Ms. Shapiro. 'You have to make those last months sound like a conscious choice,' she says.
约雷斯说, 如果你已经失业了很长时间, 有猎头问到其中原因的时候, 你不妨说那是因为你对自己的下一步发展非常审慎, 然后向对方说明自己是多么适合目前应聘的职位。夏皮罗建议, 你也可以说是想要跟家人共度一段时间, 或者是为了进修, 所以暂时没有寻找新的工作。她说：“你必须让对方觉得,过去这几个月之所以没有上班, 完全是你自己的选择。”