According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may become recognized as the leader of a social group in the United States. In the family traditional cultural patterns confer (授予) leadership on one or both of the parents. In other cases, such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although there is no formal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally through election or recruitment.
Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural leaders.” It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group.
Furthermore, although it is commonly supposed that social groups have a single leader,research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things done.”Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well-beings of a social group’s members. Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them. Group members expect expressive leaders to maintain stable relationships within the group and provide support to individual members.
Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group members. They give orders and may discipline group members who prohibit attainment (达到)of the group’s goals. Expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to others in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties or is subjected to discipline, are quick to lighten a serious moment with humor, and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. As the difference in these two roles suggests,expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members;instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a more distant respect.
72. Which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from paragraph 2?
A. Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.
B. A person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective
leader in another group.
C. A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on
D. Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.
73. The passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus on _______.
A. ensuring harmonious relationships
B. sharing responsibility with group members
C. achieving a goal
D. identifying new leaders
74. A “secondary relationship” between a leader and the members of a group could best be described as “________”.
A. distant B. enthusiastic
C. sympathetic D. personal
75. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. The problems faced by leaders.
B. How leadership differs in small and large groups.
C. How social groups determine who will lead them.
D. The role of leaders in social groups.
Directions: Read the following passage and choose the most suitable heading from A-F for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need.
A. Joint effort in the development of for-profit centers
B. Benefits brought to parents
C. An alternative to the problem of public playgrounds
D. Suitable time arrangement for working parents
E. Parents’ worries of the kids safety in the new playground
F. Parents’ concern about kids playing time
As public playgrounds grow increasingly worn and shabby, the for-profit centers offer clean,safe, supervised activities as well as a variety of challenging exercises to develop youngsters’ physical fitness, usually for a fee of around $5 an hour. “Playgrounds are dirty, not supervised,” says Dick Guggenheimer, owner of the two-month-old Discovery Zone in Yonkers, N.Y., part of a Kansas City-based chain. “We’re indoors; we’re padded; parents can feel their child is safe.”
Discovery Zone has sold 120 outlets in the past 14 months, boasting sandboxes full of brightly colored plastic balls, mazes, obstacle courses, slides and mountains to climb. Now McDonalds is getting into the act. The burger giant is test-marketing a new playground,Leaps&Bounds, in Naperville, Ill. Phys Kids of Wichita has opened one center and has plans to expand.
American parents are rightly worried about their kids’ leisure life. There are 36 million children in the U.S. aged 2 to 11 who watch an average of 24 hours of TV a week and devote less and less energy to active recreation. Nationwide decrease in education budgets are making the problem worse, as gym classes and after-hours sports time get squeezed. Says Discovery Zone president Jack Gunion: “We have raised a couple of pure couch potatoes.”
In an attempt to attract more people, the new facilities cater to (迎合) the concerns of two-earner families, staying open in the evenings, long after traditional public playground have grown dark and unusable. At Naperville’s Leaps&Bounds, families can play together for $4.95 per child, parents free. Fresh-faced assistants, dressed in colorful sport pants and shirts,guide youngsters to appropriate play areas for differing age group.
These new playgrounds are not meant to be day-care facilities; parents are expected to stay and play with their kids rather than drop them off. But several also provide high-tech baby-sitting services. At some of the Discovery Zones, parents can register their children in special supervised programs, then leave them and slip away for a couple of hours to enjoy a movie or dinner. The most fun of all, though, is getting to do what parents used to do in the days before two-career families and two-hour commutes: play with their kid. That, at least, is old-fashioned, even at per-hour rates.
Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
High school dropouts (辍学者) earn an average of $9,000 less per year than graduates. Now a new study moves away a common belief why they quit. It’s much more than failing in exams at school.
Society tends to think of high school dropouts as kids who just can’t cut it. They are lazy,and perhaps not too bright. So researchers were surprised when they asked more than 450 kids who quit school about why they left.
“The vast majority actually had passing grades and they were confident that they could have graduated from high school.” John Bridgeland, the executive researcher said. About one million teens leave school each year. Only about half of African-American and Hispanic students will receive a diploma, and actually all dropouts come to regret their decision. So, if failing grades don’t explain why these kids quit, what does? Again, John Bridgeland: “The most dependable finding was that they were bored.” “They found classes uninteresting; they weren’t inspired or motivated. They didn’t see any direct connection between what they were learning in the classroom to their own lives, or to their career aspirations.”
The study found that most teens who do drop out wait until they turn sixteen, which happens to be the age at which most states allow students to quit. In the US, only one state New Mexico, has a law requiring teenagers to stay in high school until they graduate. Only four states: California, Tennessee, Texas and Utah, plus tile District of Columbia, require school attendance until age 18, no exceptions, another researcher, says raising tile compulsory attendance age may be one way to keep more kids in school.
“As these dropouts look back, they realize they’ve made a mistake. And anything that sort of gives these people an extra push to stick it out and it through to the end, is probably helpful measure.”
New Hampshire may be the next state to raise its school attendance age to 18. But critics say that forcing the students unwilling to continue their studies to stay in school misses the point — the need for reform. It’s been called for to reinvent high school education to make in more challenging and relevant, and to ensure that kids who do stick it out receive a diploma that actually means something.
(Note: Answer the question or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN 10 WORDS)
81. What do people think of those who quit school?
82. Many students quit school not because they cannot pass grades but because they find
83. Why don’t some students quit until they are sixteen?
84. According to the passage, the more effective way to keep students from quitting is to___________.