Getting rid of dirt, in the opinion of most people, is a good thing. However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt.

In the early 16th century, people thought that dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease, as medical opinion had it that washing off dirt with hot water could open up the skin and let ills in. A particular danger was thought to lie in public baths. By 1538, the French king had closed the bath houses in his kingdom. So did the king of England in 1546. Thus began a long time when the rich and the poor in Europe lived with dirt in a friendly way. Henry IV, King of France, was famously dirty. Upon learning that a nobleman had taken a bath, the king ordered that, to avoid the attack of disease, the nobleman should not go out.

Though the belief in the merit of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since the 18th century. Scientifically speaking, cleaning away dirt is good to health. Clean water supply and hand washing are practical means of preventing disease. Yet, it seems that standards of cleanliness have moved beyond science since World War Ⅱ. Advertisements repeatedly sell the idea; clothes need to be whiter than white, cloths ever softer, surfaces to shine. Has the hate for dirt, however, gone too far?

Attrtedes to dirt still differ hugely nowadays.Many first-time parents nervously try to warn their children off touching dirt, which might be responsible for the spread of disease.On the conterary,Mary Ruebush,an American immunologist(免疫学家),encourages children to play in the dirt to build up a strong immune system.And the latter position is gaining some ground.

64.The kings of France and England in the 16th century closed bath houses because       .

A.they lived healthily in a dirty environment.

B they thought bath houses were to dirty to stay in

C. they believed disease could be spread in public baths

D. they considered bathing as the cause of skin disease

65.Which of the following best describes Henry IV’s attitude to bathing?





66. How does the passage mainly develop?

A. By providing examples.

B. By making comparisons.

C. By following the order of time.

D. By following the order of importance.

67.What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?

A. To stress the role of dirt.

B. To introduce the history of dirt.

C. To call attention to the danger of dirt.

D. To present the change of views on dirt.


William Butler Yeats, a most famous Irish writer, was born in Dublin on June 13,1865. His childhood lacked the harmony (和睦) that was typical of a happy family. Later, Yeats shocked his family by saying that he remembered “little of childhood but its pain”. In fact, he inherited (继承) excellent taste in art from his family ——both his father and his brother were painters. But he finally settled on literature , particularly drama (戏剧) and poetry.

Yeats had strong faith in coming of new artistic movements. He set himself the fresh task in founding an Irish national theatre in the late 1890s.His early theatrical experiments,however,were not received favorably at the beginning. He didn’t lose heart,and finally enjoyed success in his poetical drama.

Compared with his dramatic works, Yeats’s poems attract much admiring notice.The subject matter includes love, nature, history, time and aging. Though Yeats generally relied on very tradisional forms, he brought modern sensibility to them. As his literary life progressed, his poetry grew finer and richer, which led him to worldwide recognition.

He had not enjoyed a major public life since winning the Nobel Price in 1923.Yet,he continued writing almost to the end of his life. Had Yeats stopped writing at age 40,he would probably now his valued as a manor poet, for there is no other example in literary history of a poet  who produces his greatest works between the ages of 50 and 75. After Yeats’s death in 1939, W.H. Auden wrote, among others, the following lines:

Earth,recive an honoured guest:

William Yeats is laid to rest.

Let the Irish vessel (船) lie

Emptied of its poetry

68.Which of the following can describe Yeats’s family?

A.It filled Yeats’s childhood with laughter.

B.It was shocked by Yeats’s choice.

C.It was a typically wealthy family.

D.It had an artistic atmosphere.

69.According to thse passage,what do we know about Yeats’s life?

A.Yeats founded the first Irish theater.

B.Yeats stuck to modern forms in his peotry.

C.Yeats began to produce his best works from the 1910s.

D.Yeats was not favored by the publie until the 1923 Noble Prize.

70.What kind of feeling is expressed in W.H.Auden’s lines?





71.What is the passage mainly about?

A.Yeats’s literary achievements

B. Yeats’s historical infuluence

C. Yeats’s artistic ambition

D. Yeats’s national honor


Skeptics are stange lot.Some of them refuse to admit the serious threat of human activities to the enviroment, and they are tired of people who disagree with them. Those people,say skeptics, spread noting but bad news about the environment.The “eco-guilt”brought on by the discouraging nes about our planet gives rise to the popularity od skeptice as people search for more comforting worldviews.

Perhaps that explains why a new book by Bjorn Lomborg received so much publicity.That book ,The Skeptical Environmentalist, declares that it  measures the “real state of the world”as fine. Of course ,another explanation is the deep  pockets of some big businesses with special intererts. Indeed, Mr. Lomborg’s views are similar to those of some Industry-funded organizations, which start huge activities though the media to confuse the public aboat issues  like global warming.

So it was strange to see Mr. Lomborg’s book go largely unchallenged in the media though his beliefs were contrary to most scientific opinions. One national newspaper in Canada ran a number of articles and reviews full of words of praise, even with the conclusion that “After Lomborg, the environmental movement will begin to die down.”

Such one-sided views should have immediately been challenged. But only a different review appeared in Nature, a respected science magazine with specific readership. The review remarked that Mr. Lomborg’s “preference for unexamined materials is incredible(不可信的)”。

A critical (批判的)eye is valuable, and the media should present information in such a way that could allow people to make informed decisions. Unfortunately, that is often inaccessible as blocked by the desire to be shocking or to defend some special interest. People might become half-blind before a world partially exhibited by the media. That’s a shame, because matters concerning the health of the planet are far too important to be treated lightly.

72. According to the passage, which of the following may be regarded as “skeptics”?

A. People who agree on the popularity of “eco-guilt”.

B. People who disbelieve the serious situation of our planet.

C. People who dislike the harmful effect of human activities.

D. People who spread comforting news to protect our environment.

73. Which of the following can be a reason for the popularity of Lomborg’s books?

A. Some big businesses intend to protect their own interests.

B .The book challenges views about the fine state of the wirld.

C. The author convinces people to speak comforting worldviews.

D. Industry–funded media present confusing information.

74. The author mentioned the review inNature in order to____.

A. voice a different opinion

B. find fault with Lomborg’s book 

C. challenge the authority of the media

D. point out the value of scientific views.

75. What is the author’s main purpose in writing the passenger?

A. To encourage the skeptics to have a critical eye.

B. To warn the public of the danger of half–blindness with reviews.

C. To blame the media’s lack of responsibility in information.

D. To show the importance of presenting overall information by the media.