We will increase aid for treating major and serious diseases and implement the temporary-assistance scheme nationwide so that people with urgent or special needs will have somewhere to go for support, and will be able to get that support straight away.
加强······救助 increase aid for
重特大疾病 major and serious diseases
临时救助制度 temporary-assistance scheme
全面 nationwide （适用于此处语境）
急难特困的群众 people with urgent or special needs
Have somewhere to go for support, and will be able to get that support straight away
这句也是言内翻译的典例，比如对“门”的理解。至于“助”字，则是遣词造句方面功力的体现。小词很小，通篇看下来就是功底。另外个人感觉两个小句应该可以合并下，再精练一些。“及时”和后面的 straight away 也是稍微有点儿差别。
If you do something straight away, you do it immediately and without delay. 立即
I should go and see a doctor straight away.
We will develop sound welfare and service systems for vulnerable groups including children living in difficult circumstances, the very elderly, elderly people with disabilities, people with serious disabilities, and people with disabilities who are living in poverty.
这类“对”、“对于”经常是化到句子里翻译的，不用都一律 in terms of
特困群体 vulnerable groups （简化护理）
困境儿童 children living in difficult circumstances
失能老人 elderly people with disabilities
贫困残疾人 people with disabilities who are living in poverty
We will continue to raise subsistence allowances for rural and urban residents and increase benefits and living allowances for entitled groups. Policies for increasing wages and social security benefits have a bearing on a great number of people; their implementation by governments at all levels must be completely satisfactory.
低保 subsistence allowances
对··· 有影响 have bearing on / bear on
Those are matters that bear on the welfare of the community.
While health may not be the main aim of policies in these sectors, they have strong bearing on health and health equity.
优抚对象 entitled groups，在很多术语表里有这个对应，但是个人感觉，这类对应还是要慎用，换个语境，这里的 entitled group 意思可能就变了。例如
But environmentalists have lashed out at protesters as a selfish, entitled group with no business running private cattle on public lands
There is no more obnoxious, arrogant, rude and entitled group of students at Harvard.
Ensuring people’s wellbeing is a top priority for the government, and we must do all we can to make sure that basic needs are met.
民之疾苦，译为 Ensuring people’s wellbeing，重点还是在理解、简化这方面。
把民生底线兜住兜牢 make sure that basic needs are met
We will promote fair access to and strengthen the quality of education.
教育公平 fair access to education
Education is an endeavor for today, but a source of hope for tomorrow.
We need to foster virtue through education and ensure that students develop a strong sense of social responsibility, innovative thinking, and ability to put ideas into practice. We should ensure that students strengthen their dedication to socialism with Chinese characteristics.
增强社会责任感 develop a strong sense of social responsibility
创新精神 innovative thinking（“精神”、“思想”这类词很难翻译好）
实践能力 ability to put ideas into practice
We will deepen the reform to expand the responsibility of provincial-level governments over local education, the comprehensive reform of colleges and universities, as well as the reform of the school examination and enrollment systems.
省级政府 provincial-level governments
高等院校 colleges and universities
考试招生 examination and enrollment
We will move more quickly to help all schools providing compulsory education to meet standards, and improve basic conditions in boarding schools and schools that are poorly built and operated.
寄宿制学校 boarding schools
薄弱学校 schools that are poorly built and operated
学校标准化建设 help schools to meet standards
help 后面的 to 是可加可不加的
I helped him (to) find his wallet.
We will implement the policy of enabling the children of migrant workers to receive compulsory education in the cities and towns where they and their parents live and improve policies that enable them to continue on into secondary and college education.
升学 continue on into secondary and college education
relating to the education of children approximately between the ages of 11 and 18 years old:
Continue on 继续
When the time comes, we need to rest/sleep to recover our energy, so we can continue on the next day.
We will work to comprehensively promote the development of a modern vocational education system.
We will guide a number of local undergraduate institutions to transform themselves into applied colleges. We will support the development of higher education in the central and western regions by offering them assistance through pairing programs, and continue to raise the admission rate for those taking the college entrance exams in the central and western regions and in provinces with larger populations.
本科高校 undergraduate institutions
高等教育 higher education （这里higher 是个形容词，而不是比较级）
录取率 the admission rate
人口大省 provinces with larger populations
（larger: adj. large or big relative to something else）
Applied | ə'plaɪd] adj. 实用的; 应用的
应用心理学 applied psychology
应用数学 applied mathematics
实用美术 applied art
Plans to put more money into applied research.
We will work to develop world-class universities and disciplines.
Discipline /ˈdɪs.ə.plɪn/ 学科
Disciple /dɪˈsaɪ.pļ/ 弟子, 门徒，信徒，追随者，崇奉者
We will strengthen education for those with special learning needs, preschool education, continuing education, and all types of education in areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities.
特殊教育 education for those with special learning needs
民族地区 areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities
继续教育 continuing education
We will work to promote the healthy development of privately run educational institutions. In order to provide good education, we must guarantee funding and ensure that every yuan is well spent. We should clear any obstructions to upwards mobility for students from rural or poor areas, and ensure that each and every person has the opportunity to change their life through education.
民办教育 privately run educational institutions
保证投入 guarantee funding
畅通······渠道 clear any obstructions to
We will work more quickly to improve the basic medical and healthcare systems.
完善城乡居民基本医保，财政补助标准由每人每年 320 元提高到 380 元。
We will improve basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents, and increase the annual government subsidy for this insurance from 320 yuan to 380 yuan per person.
基本医保 basic medical insurance
城乡居民 rural and non-working urban residents （出现多次）
财政补助 the annual government subsidy
We will basically complete the task of enabling on-the-spot settlement of medical expenses incurred anywhere within the provincial-level administrative area where one’s insurance is registered, and steadily work toward enabling retirees to have their medical expenses settled on the spot in whichever provincial-level administrative area they are living.
直接结算 on-the-spot settlement (名词)/ settle on the spot （动作）
We will fully implement the major disease insurance scheme for rural and non-working urban residents.
全面实施 fully implement