加强重特大疾病医疗救助,全面实施临时救助制度,让遇到急难特困的群众求助有门、受助及时。
We will increase aid for treating major and serious diseases and implement the temporary-assistance scheme nationwide so that people with urgent or special needs will have somewhere to go for support, and will be able to get that support straight away.

加强······救助 increase aid for
重特大疾病 major and serious diseases
临时救助制度 temporary-assistance scheme

全面 nationwide (适用于此处语境)
和“建设”一样,这也是个高频词,全文42次,前几篇笔记里也有整理。

急难特困的群众 people with urgent or special needs
这里有一定程度的简化,原文也有些难于理解。一般这类报告,译员并不是自己在办公室闭门造车,也需要和撰文秘书沟通,了解清词语和句子确切意思方能定稿。考试时由于信息不对称,只能尽量深入理解。有时候为了保持句子简洁,也难免会有信息损失。但这种精简并不一定是错,因为文本除了表达信息,渲染情感等方面的功能也很重要,有时候还非得牺牲表面的“信”不可。

求助有门、受助及时
Have somewhere to go for support, and will be able to get that support straight away
这句也是言内翻译的典例,比如对“门”的理解。至于“助”字,则是遣词造句方面功力的体现。小词很小,通篇看下来就是功底。另外个人感觉两个小句应该可以合并下,再精练一些。“及时”和后面的 straight away 也是稍微有点儿差别。

对着编译局前辈的译文指指点点,确有班门弄斧的嫌疑,但只是从学习角度做些探讨,为的是多做深入思考。这也是自己对翻译学习的看法,译文即便完美,也可以允许其他版本存在。一家好,也不代表就要排斥其他。经过反思之后发现的译文好,才是真的好,自己译出的版本其实也更重要。然后依然是该记忆的需要背,该思考的还要多方发散。

Straight away
If you do something straight away, you do it immediately and without delay. 立即
I should go and see a doctor straight away.
我应该立即去看医生。

对困境儿童、高龄和失能老人、重度和贫困残疾人等特困群体,健全福利保障制度和服务体系。
We will develop sound welfare and service systems for vulnerable groups including children living in difficult circumstances, the very elderly, elderly people with disabilities, people with serious disabilities, and people with disabilities who are living in poverty.

“对困境儿童、高龄和失能老人、重度和贫困残疾人等特困群体”
这类“对”、“对于”经常是化到句子里翻译的,不用都一律 in terms of

特困群体 vulnerable groups (简化护理)
困境儿童 children living in difficult circumstances
失能老人 elderly people with disabilities
贫困残疾人 people with disabilities who are living in poverty

继续提高城乡低保水平,提升优抚对象抚恤和生活补助标准。提高工资和保障标准等政策受益面广,各级政府一定要落实到位。
We will continue to raise subsistence allowances for rural and urban residents and increase benefits and living allowances for entitled groups. Policies for increasing wages and social security benefits have a bearing on a great number of people; their implementation by governments at all levels must be completely satisfactory.

“继续提高城乡低保水平,提升优抚对象抚恤和生活补助标准”,一句话两个概括词(水平、标准),都可以不翻译出来。因为去掉之后完全不影响。做汉译英其实可以拿支铅笔,该删的都可以先划掉。言内翻译很重要。

低保 subsistence allowances

对··· 有影响 have bearing on / bear on

Those are matters that bear on the welfare of the community.
那些是影响社会福利的原因。
While health may not be the main aim of policies in these sectors, they have strong bearing on health and health equity.
虽然卫生可能不是这些部门政策的主要目标,但这些政策对卫生和卫生公平性具有很大影响。

优抚对象 entitled groups,在很多术语表里有这个对应,但是个人感觉,这类对应还是要慎用,换个语境,这里的 entitled group 意思可能就变了。例如

But environmentalists have lashed out at protesters as a selfish, entitled group with no business running private cattle on public lands

There is no more obnoxious, arrogant, rude and entitled group of students at Harvard.

民之疾苦,国之要事,我们要竭尽全力,坚决把民生底线兜住兜牢。
Ensuring people’s wellbeing is a top priority for the government, and we must do all we can to make sure that basic needs are met.

民之疾苦,译为 Ensuring people’s wellbeing,重点还是在理解、简化这方面。

把民生底线兜住兜牢 make sure that basic needs are met

促进教育公平发展和质量提升。
We will promote fair access to and strengthen the quality of education.

教育公平 fair access to education

教育是今天的事业、明天的希望。
Education is an endeavor for today, but a source of hope for tomorrow.

明天的希望这里,译文在逻辑上做了修改,译出了原本意思而不是字面形式。这里也是语言很有意思的一方面,比如说改天一起吃饭,其实可能就是你好再见的意思。

要坚持立德树人,增强学生的社会责任感、创新精神、实践能力,培养中国特色社会主义建设者和接班人。
We need to foster virtue through education and ensure that students develop a strong sense of social responsibility, innovative thinking, and ability to put ideas into practice. We should ensure that students strengthen their dedication to socialism with Chinese characteristics.

增强社会责任感 develop a strong sense of social responsibility
创新精神 innovative thinking(“精神”、“思想”这类词很难翻译好)
实践能力 ability to put ideas into practice

深化省级政府教育统筹改革、高等院校综合改革和考试招生制度改革。
We will deepen the reform to expand the responsibility of provincial-level governments over local education, the comprehensive reform of colleges and universities, as well as the reform of the school examination and enrollment systems.

省级政府 provincial-level governments
省级人民政府指省、自治区、直辖市的人民政府,所以这里这个level 还不能去掉。
高等院校 colleges and universities
考试招生 examination and enrollment

加快义务教育学校标准化建设,改善薄弱学校和寄宿制学校基本办学条件。
We will move more quickly to help all schools providing compulsory education to meet standards, and improve basic conditions in boarding schools and schools that are poorly built and operated.

寄宿制学校 boarding schools
薄弱学校 schools that are poorly built and operated
学校标准化建设 help schools to meet standards

help 后面的 to 是可加可不加的
I helped him (to) find his wallet.
我帮他找到了他丢失的钱包。

落实农民工随迁子女在流入地接受义务教育政策,完善后续升学政策。
We will implement the policy of enabling the children of migrant workers to receive compulsory education in the cities and towns where they and their parents live and improve policies that enable them to continue on into secondary and college education.

升学 continue on into secondary and college education

Secondary /ˈsek.ən.dri/
relating to the education of children approximately between the ages of 11 and 18 years old:

Continue on 继续
When the time comes, we need to rest/sleep to recover our energy, so we can continue on the next day.
时间到了,我们需要休息/睡眠来恢复我们的体能,然后第二天我们可以继续工作。

全面推进现代职业教育体系建设。
We will work to comprehensively promote the development of a modern vocational education system.

引导部分地方本科高校向应用型转变,通过对口支援等方式支持中西部高等教育发展,继续提高中西部地区和人口大省高考录取率。
We will guide a number of local undergraduate institutions to transform themselves into applied colleges. We will support the development of higher education in the central and western regions by offering them assistance through pairing programs, and continue to raise the admission rate for those taking the college entrance exams in the central and western regions and in provinces with larger populations.

本科高校 undergraduate institutions
高等教育 higher education (这里higher 是个形容词,而不是比较级)
录取率 the admission rate
人口大省 provinces with larger populations
(larger: adj. large or big relative to something else)

Applied | ə'plaɪd] adj. 实用的; 应用的
例:
应用心理学 applied psychology
应用数学 applied mathematics
实用美术 applied art
Plans to put more money into applied research.

建设世界一流大学和一流学科。
We will work to develop world-class universities and disciplines.

Discipline /ˈdɪs.ə.plɪn/ 学科
Disciple /dɪˈsaɪ.pļ/ 弟子, 门徒,信徒,追随者,崇奉者

加强特殊教育、学前教育、继续教育和民族地区各类教育。
We will strengthen education for those with special learning needs, preschool education, continuing education, and all types of education in areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities.

特殊教育 education for those with special learning needs
民族地区 areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities
继续教育 continuing education

促进民办教育健康发展。为切实把教育事业办好,我们要保证投入,花好每一分钱,畅通农村和贫困地区学子纵向流动的渠道,让每个人都有机会通过教育改变自身命运。
We will work to promote the healthy development of privately run educational institutions. In order to provide good education, we must guarantee funding and ensure that every yuan is well spent. We should clear any obstructions to upwards mobility for students from rural or poor areas, and ensure that each and every person has the opportunity to change their life through education.

民办教育 privately run educational institutions
保证投入 guarantee funding
畅通······渠道 clear any obstructions to

加快健全基本医疗卫生制度。
We will work more quickly to improve the basic medical and healthcare systems.

完善城乡居民基本医保,财政补助标准由每人每年 320 元提高到 380 元。
We will improve basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents, and increase the annual government subsidy for this insurance from 320 yuan to 380 yuan per person.

基本医保 basic medical insurance
城乡居民 rural and non-working urban residents (出现多次)
财政补助 the annual government subsidy
每人per person

基本实现居民医疗费用省内直接结算,稳步推行退休人员医疗费用跨省直接结算。
We will basically complete the task of enabling on-the-spot settlement of medical expenses incurred anywhere within the provincial-level administrative area where one’s insurance is registered, and steadily work toward enabling retirees to have their medical expenses settled on the spot in whichever provincial-level administrative area they are living.

直接结算 on-the-spot settlement (名词)/ settle on the spot (动作)
退休人员 retirees

全面实施城乡居民大病保险制度。
We will fully implement the major disease insurance scheme for rural and non-working urban residents.

全面实施 fully implement