演讲稿的写作有严格的要求,就内容而言要主题鲜明,表达完整;就文章组织结构而言要思维清晰,逻辑性强;就语言而言要有感染力、形象生动。写作时可根据需要有效、正确地使用英语写作方法和技巧,如恰当地运用明喻、暗喻、夸张等各种修辞方法,用词要准确,尽量避免使用生僻、模糊、晦涩的字词。总之,要考虑听众对象,注意演讲的措辞,但又要简明扼要、有理有力、结构紧凑。许多著名的演说家的不朽之作都有振奋人心、扭转乾坤般的力量。从马丁.路德.金的“I have a dream”,美国总统林肯所作的著名的盖茨堡演说,到克林顿在北大的演说,不少句子都成为不朽的佳句,值得认真研读。
3. 进行演讲
有了充分的准备,进行演讲就不太难了。在演讲的整个过程中还要注意一些演讲的要领与技巧,如演讲者与听众目光的接触(eye contact),声音的抑扬顿挫(vocal variety),和肢体语言的配合(hand gestures and body language)等等,但要恰当,不要太多,否则会喧宾夺主,影响演讲效果。

演讲的四个目标Four objectives of the speech
To offer information; 提供信息;
To entertain the audience; 使听众感到乐趣;
To touch emotions; 动之以情;
To move to action; 使听众行动起来;

Plan well in advance; 预先计划好;
Make sure you fully understand your role in the program;
Devote care to structuring your speech logically; 认真地构思演讲,使其结构符合逻辑;
Devote care to setting the proper tone. 认真设定适当的基调。

How to begin 如何开头
To tell a story (about yourself); 讲个(自己的)故事;
To acknowledge the occasion of the gathering; 对大家能够聚在一起表示感谢;
To pay the listeners a compliment; 称赞一下听众;
To quote ; 引用名人名言;
To use unusual statistics; 使用一些不平常的数据;
To ask the audience a challenging question; 问观众一个挑战性的问题;
To show a video or a slide. 播放录像带或看幻灯片。
How to organize the speech
To have a structure: such as first, second, third; geographically, north, south, east, west; compare and contrasts; our side versus their side; negative and positive;
To label the materials such as jokes, funny anecdotes, favorite sayings, interesting statistics;
How to close 如何结尾
To repeat your opening; 重复你的开头;
To summarize your presentation; 概括你的演讲;
To close with an anecdote; 以趣事结尾;
To end with a call to action; 以号召行动结尾;
To ask a rhetorical question; 以反问结尾;
To make a statement; 以一个陈述句结尾;
Keynote speech 基调发言
A Keynote speech is to outline the subjects to be addressed by other speakers at an event,and to establish the tone of a meeting or program.

How to communicate with the audience 怎样与听众交流
A message worth communicating; 要有值得交流的观点;
Gain the listeners' atention: capture their interest and build their trust;
Emphasize understanding; 重视理解;
Obtain their feedback; 获得反馈;
Watch your emotional tone; 注意声调要有感情;
Persuade the audience; 说服听众;
How to gain confidence 怎样变得自信
Smile and glance at the audience; 微笑并看着观众;
Start very slowly, with your shoulders back and your chin up;
Open your speech by saying something very frankly; 开场白说一些真诚话;
Wear your very best clothes; 穿上自己最好的衣服;
Say something positive to yourself; 对自己说一些积极的话;

Eye contact with the audience 与观众的眼神交流
Move your eyes slowly from person to person, and pause two or three seconds with each listener;
Look at people straight or look at the bridge of their noses or chins;
Look for the friendlier faces and smile at them one by one, then move on to the more skeptical members and smile at them one by one also;
Imagine the audience in bathrobes in case you are nervous.

HOW to use gestures 如何使有手势
Make sure all your gestures are smooth and natural; 所有的动作都应该流畅自然;
Don't put your hands in your pockets; 不要把手插在口袋里;
Let your hands and arms drop naturally to your side ,gently fold both indes fingers together,without wringing or gripping your hands in any way;
Let your hands do what they want to do as long as they don't go back into your pockets or make obscene gestures.
Point at imaginary objects and don't point at others with your index finger;
Size or quantity can also easily be shown by expanding or contracting the hands;
Gracefully show your audience the appropriate number of fingers by holding your hands at a 45 degree angle from your head;
TO emphasize physical size such as length,width,hold your hands out in front you widely apart to move them up and down.

How to cope with brownout 如何对付忘词
Just smile and go to the next card. Not the one in front of you, but to the next following. Look at the first word on it. This will be the point from which you will now continue. Of course you missed part of your speech. But nobody will notice it. They will blame themselves for not following your thoughts.

How to use cards 怎样使用卡片
Number your cards on the top right; 在卡片的右上角标上数字;
Write a complete sentence on both your first and last card;
Write up to five key words on other cards;
Use color to mark the words you want to emphasize;
Remind yourself at a particular sport to check the time.

How to use the microphone 如何使用话筒
You must speak up and project your voice even if you are using a microphone; 即使是用话筒,也要声音响亮并运气发声;
Your voice should be resonant and sustained when you speak; 声音要有回声并能稍持续一阵儿;
Pitch your voice slightly lower than normal. Listeners tend to associate credibility and authority with a relatively deep voice;音调要定得比正常讲话时低一些,听众往往把可信度与权威性与一个相对低沉的声音系在一起;
Try to end declarative sentences on a low tone without, however, trailing off in volume;尽量用降调结束陈述句,但不要减弱音量;  
Slow down. 放慢语速。

No,nos in public speaking 演讲切忌
Talking too rapidly; 语速太快;
Speaking in a monotone; 声音单调;
Using too high a vocal pitch; 声音尖细;
Talking and not saying much; “谈”得太多,说得太少;
Presenting without enough emotion or passion; 感情不充分;
Talking down to the audience; 对观众采取一种居高临下的姿态;
Using too many "big" words; 夸张的词语使用得太多;
Using abstractions without giving concrete examples; 使用抽象概念而不给出事例加以说明;
Using unfamiliar technical jargon; 使用别人不熟悉的技术术语;
Using slang or profanity; 使用俚语或粗俗语;
Disorganized and rambling performance; 演讲无组织,散乱无序;
Indirect communication i.e. beating around the bush; 说话绕弯子,不切中主题;

Typical signals of nervousness 紧张的典型特征
  Hands in pockets 手放在口袋里
Increased blinking of the eyes 眨眼次数过多;
Failure to make eye contact害怕眼神的接触;
Licking and biting of the lips 舔嘴唇和史嘴唇;
Finger tapping 敲叩手指;
Fast,jerky gestures 手势又急又快;
Cracking voices 粗哑的声音
Increased rate of speech 讲话速度加快;
Clearing of the throat 清嗓子;
Buttocks clamped tightly together 臀部崩得紧紧的;
The way to over come nervousness is breathe in deep and breathe out slowly for some times. 克服紧张的办法是调匀呼吸,深吸气,慢呼出。

HOW to dress 如何穿着得体
Dark colored suits or dresses; 穿深色西装;
Red ties or scarves; 空朴素的白衬衫或上衣;
Black shoes,freshly polished; 戴红色的领带或丝巾;
Very little jewelry -worn discreetly; 穿刚刚擦亮的黑色鞋子;
Calm,slow gestures and slow movements; 尽量不戴首饰,要戴的话要非常小心;
Shoulders back,chin up. 挺胸抬头。