[全球地震分布区, 1963年–1998年] 

沪江小D提醒:鼠标悬停在颜色不同的单词上或划选单词即可获得详细释义

An earthquake

(also known as a quake, tremor, or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.

Earthquakes are recorded with a seismometer, also known as a seismograph. The moment magnitude (or the related and mostly obsolete Richter magnitude) of an earthquake is conventionally reported, with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being mostly imperceptible and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale.

At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacing the ground. When a large earthquake epicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami. The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity.

In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event — whether a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The term epicenter refers to the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.

地震

(又称地动、地振动)是地壳快速释放能量过程中造成的振动,期间会产生地震波。

地震可由地震仪所测量,地震的震级是用作表示由震源释放出来的能量,通常以“里氏地震规模”来表示,地震震级为3级或以下的大都难以察觉,7级及以上则会造成大面积的严重损坏;烈度则透过“修订麦加利地震烈度表”来表示。(某地点的地震烈度是指地震引致该地点地壳运动的猛烈程度,是由震动对个人、家具、房屋、地质结构等所产生的影响来断定。)

在地球的表面,地震会使地面发生震动,有时则会发生地面移动。震动可能引发山泥倾泻甚或火山活动。如地震在海底发生,海床的移动甚至会引发海啸。

一般而言,地震一词可指自然现象或人为破坏所造成的地震波。人为自然地形的破坏、大量气体(尤其是沼气)迁移或提取、水库蓄水、采矿、油井注水、地下核试等;自然的火山活动、大型山崩、地下空洞塌陷、大块陨石坠落等均可引发地震。

考研词汇学习

release:
vt. ①释放、解放 The prisoner was released from jail when his sentence was up. 该囚犯刑满释放。
    ②发表,发行 The new movie will be released next weekend. 新电影将于下周末发行。
n. 发表,发布 The release of the singer's new album is set on 9th of September. 这位歌手的新专辑定于9月9日发布。

magnitude
n. ①大小,数量 I want to know the magnitude of this equipment before making room for it.在给这个设备腾出地方前,我想知道它的大小。
   ②巨大,广大 The flood caused a magnitude of the loss. 洪水造成了巨大的损失。
   ③重要性,重要程度 I didn't realize the magnitude of this meeting and paid little attention to it. 我没有意识到这次会议的重要性,一点也没有重视它。

intensity:
n. ①强烈,剧烈 There was a cold-blooded intensity in the general's stare. 将军凝视的目光中透着极度的冷酷和无情。
   ②强度 An earthquake of similar intensity shook another village 8 miles away. 距此地8英里的另外一个村子也发生了一次同样强度的地震。

scale
n. ①刻度,标度 In America, temperature is measured on the Fahrenheit scale. 在美国,温度是用华氏刻度来衡量的。
   ②天平,磅秤;比例尺 The packman empties the walnuts from the bag onto a weighing scale. 小贩将袋中的胡桃全部倒出,放在磅秤上过秤。
   ③规模 on a large scale 大规模地 // in scale 成比例,相称 // out of scale 不成比例,不相称
   ④音阶 Maria expertly sang a coloratura scale. 玛利亚花腔音唱得很熟练。
   ⑤鱼鳞 The fish is covered with colorful scales. 那种鱼长满了彩色的鳞片。
v. (down)缩减,缩小

manifest
vt. 表明,证明,显示 The kids manifested dense interest in their studies. 孩子们对学习显示出了浓厚的兴趣。
a. 明白的,明了的 Kevin strove to make his ideas anifest to us. 凯文极力使我们明白他的想法。

displace
vt.①移置,转移 I displace a joint in my knee while running. 我跑步时膝关节脱臼了。
   ②取代,置换 Many feared that radio would displace the newspaper industry. 许多人担心广播将会取代报业。

sufficient
a. (for) 足够的,充分的 Is $10 sufficient for your expense? 10美元够你花的吗?[考点]self-sufficient 自给自足
             
occasional
a. ①偶然的,非经常地,特殊场合的 Jack only smokes an occasional cigar. 杰克只是偶尔才抽雪茄。
   ②临时的;不时的 They hired some occasional chauffeurs in their wedding. 他们在结婚时请了一些临时司机。

describe
v. 描述,形容 An eyewitness described the scene as the shooting took place. 一名目击者描述了枪击发生时的情景。

phenomenon
n.[pl.phenomena] 现象 Bankruptcy is a common phenomenon in an economic recession. 破产在经济萧条期是一种常见现象。

initial
a. ①最初的,开头的 the initial stage 初级阶段 
   ②词首的 The initial letter of the word Spain is S.“Spain”一词的首字母是S。
n. 词首大写字母 The clerk wrote his initials on the sales receipt. 业务员在销售收据上签上了自己名字的大写字母。


【附:中国地震烈度表】
1度:无感-仅仪器能记录到;
2度:微有感-个特别敏感的人在完全静止中有感;
3度:少有感-室内少数人在静止中有感,悬挂物轻微摆动;
4度:多有感-室内大多数人,室外少数人有感,悬挂物摆动,不稳器皿作响;
5度:惊醒-室外大多数人有感,家畜不宁,门窗作响,墙壁表面出现裂纹;
6度:惊慌-人站立不稳,家畜外逃,器皿翻落,简陋棚舍损坏,陡坎滑坡;
7度:房屋损坏-房屋轻微损坏,牌坊,烟囱损坏,地表出现裂缝及喷沙冒水;
8度:建筑物破坏-房屋多有损坏,少数破坏路基塌方,地下管道破裂;
9度:建筑物普遍破坏-房屋大多数破坏,少数倾倒,牌坊,烟囱等崩塌,铁轨弯曲;
10度:建筑物普遍摧毁-房屋倾倒,道路毁坏,山石大量崩塌,水面大浪扑岸;
11度:毁灭-房屋大量倒塌,路基堤岸大段崩毁,地表产生很大变化;
12度:山川易景-一切建筑物普遍毁坏,地形剧烈变化动植物遭毁灭;
例如,1976年唐山地震,震级为7.8级,震中烈度为十一度;受唐山地震的影响,天津市地震烈度为八度,北京市烈度为六度,再远到石家庄、太原等就只有四至五度了。

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