2.分词后置 (i.分词词组；ii.个别分词如given, left； iii.修饰不定代词something等)
Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.
Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.
1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written
答案D. 书与写作是被动关系，应用过去分词做定语表被动，相当于定语从句which is written
2）What's the language ____ in Germany?
A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak
What's the language (which is) spoken in German?
As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
-> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.
If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.
-> Given more attention，the trees could have grown better.
1）_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed
答案B. Napoleon与follow之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外，还有动作正在进行之意。followed by（被...跟随）。
本题可改为：With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.
2）There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.
A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed
3）_______, liquids can be changed into gases.
A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat
答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动，正在进行的；过去分词表被动的，已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者，是被动的，因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated，...