新视野大学英语视听说教程4答案 unit 3 Watch out when natu re ..
II. Basic Listening Practice
W: Did you see the paper today? There was an earthquake in Brazil.
M: Yes, but it only measured 3.5 on the Richter scale. I don’t think there were any casualties.
Q: What is the result of the earthquake of 3.5 on the Richter scale according to the man?
W: I’d a bit worried about Suzie traveling to southern India. It’s the rainy season there, and there may be landsides.
M: Suzie can take care of herself; she won’t go anywhere too risky. Besides, you can always e-mail her if it makes you feel better.
Q: What is Suzie doing?
M: Hi, I thought you were on holiday in Asia! Back already?
W: we never got there! Our travel agent cancelled our arrangements because the whole region is flooded. We were so disappointed; we won’t get another chance to go this year.
Q: What is the woman doing?
M: Our flight to Tokyo was delayed by twelve hours. Can you believe it? A typhoon hit the east coast and it was chaos.
W: I saw it on the news. The flooding and damage were terrible. I don’t think anyone was hurt though.
Q: What is the consequence of the typhoon?
W: Did you see the program last night about volcanoes? It was fascinating!
M: Yes, the weird thing is the molten lava looks so beautiful, yet it’s so destructive. And I couldn’t believe how far the ash can travel. I’m glad we don’t have any volcanoes here!
Q: What does the man think the volcano is?
Keys: 1.D 2.A 3. C 4.B 5.C
III. Listening In
Task 1: Soft answers turn away wrath.
Son: Hi, mom, what are we having for dinner tonight?
Mom: I haven’t started yet. Why, have you any requires?
Son: How about tsunami for a change—I don’t know what is, but I heard some Japanese people using the word on the bus the other day. Sounds like a food. Maybe it’s similar to sushi.
Mom: Nonsense. Tsunami comes from Japanese words meaning harbor and wave. If we had a tsunami, it would be the other way around, young man.
Son: Why? What is it?
Mom: I mean it may swallow you up. A tsunami is an enormous series of very powerful waves.
Son: Could you surf on them? That could be cool.
Mom: They’re not cool. They are very destructive. When they pound the shore of populated areas, they cause tremendous damage. They destroy everything in their path.
Son: What causes them?
Mom: I think they are caused by some sort of shock, like an earthquake, volcano, or landside that starts a chain reaction in the ocean.
Son: Do the waves get to big that they crush buildings?
Mom: Easily. They can be dozens of meters high. They toss cars and houses around as though they were children’s toys.
Son: Can you see them coming?
Mom: You can see them at quite a distance. But there’s not much you can do. In the open ocean they move at up to 800km per hour, but when it reaches the shore, the system slows down and the waves get bigger.
Son: How big?
Mom: They can reach 30 meters. Big enough to finish you off in one gulp.
11. What the son think a tsunami is?
12. What does Mom imply by saying, “If we had a tsunami, it would be the other way around”?
13. What does the son think surfing on tsunami waves would be like?
14. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as the cause of a tsunami?
15. How high can tsunami waves reach?
Keys: 1B 2.C 3.A 4.D 5.C
1. In the open ocean they move at up to 800km per hour, but when it reaches the shore, the system slows down and the waves get bigger.
2. They can reach 30 meters. Big enough to finish you off in one gulp.
Task 2: Flooding in Haiti and the Dominican Republic
The death too continues to (S1) climb from last week’s flooding in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The U.S. Agency for International Development (S2) reports that at least1,068 people are dead, 1,600 are (S3) missing, and 25,000 are in need of emergency food and other forms of (S4)assistance. In Dominican Republic, 414 are dead and 274 are missing, all from the town of Jimani.
A key(S5) factor in the widespread destruction is the extensive deforestation and the (S6) presence of settlements along the floodplains of rivers.
The flooding was driven by intense rainfall. A low-pressure system (S7) originating in Central America brought exceptionally heavy rain and thunderstorms to Haiti and the Dominican Republic from May 18 t o25. (S8) Rainfall exceeded 500 mm (or 19.7 inches) along the border areas of Haiti and the Dominican Republic during that period. At the town of Jimani, Dominican Republic, 250mm (or 10 inches) of rain fell in just 24 hours, causing the Solie River to overflow its banks from May24 to 25.The heavy rainfall resulted in flash flooding and extensive debris flowed over the entire region. Swollen rivers and debris cut off many of the roads traversing the area along the base of the mountains. (S9) This made it difficult for humanitarian relief worker to rescue stranded people and deliver badly. Now people want to know: How often do floods and related landmass movement also caused landsides in a few places.
(S10)Analysis of the past date shows that major floods in the Dominican Republic and Haiti are now a near-annual event. Since 1986, twelve lethal events have occurred on the island.
Task3: A Blizzard
A blizzard is a sever weather condition characterized by low temperatures and strong winds, greater than 15 miles per hour, bearing a great amount of snow.
Because the factors for classifying winter storms are complex, there are many different definitions of what a blizzard truly is. But it is generally agreed that in order to be classified as a blizzard, as opposed to merely a winter storm, the weather must meet several conditions. The storm must decrease visibility to a quarter of a mile for three hours running. Include snow or ice as precipitation, and have wind speed of at least 32 miles per hour, which means Force 7 or more on the Wind Scale.
Another standard, according to Environment Canada, is that the winter storm must have winds of 40 kilometers per hour or mi=ore, plenty of snow, visibility less than 1 kilometer, a temperature of less than -25 degrees Celsius, and all of these conditions must last for 4 hours or more, before the storm can properly be called a blizzard.
When all these conditions continue after snow has stopped falling, the storm is referred t o as a ground blizzard.
An extensive form of blizzard is a whiteout, when the downdrafts, together with snowfall, become so sever that it is impossible to distinguish the ground from the air. People caught in a whiteout can quickly become disoriented, losing their sense of up and down as well as their sense of direction. Severe blizzard can also occur along with arctic cyclones.
11. What is the passage mainly about?
12. Which of the following is true of a blizzard according to the first standard?
13. Which of the following is true of a blizzard according to the second standard?
14. What is a ground blizzard?
5. Which of the following is in the order of increasing force?
Keys: 1A 2.B3. C 4.D 5.C
They can quickly become disoriented, losing their sense of up and down as well as their sense of direction.
IV. Speaking Out
MODEL 1 It was a strong earthquake
Amy: Bill, it was a strong earthquake! The house was shaking, the window breaking! Terrible.
Bill: I know, it was terrible. I saw your face turn whit as you ran and got under the table.
Amy: I admit I panicked. But it wasn’t an occasion for us to be careless. It’s better to be cautious. There might be aftershocks.
Bill: Or an even bigger quake!
Amy: To play it safe, let’s turn off the gas and electricity.
Bill: Right. Let’s get the emergency earthquake kit already. It’s in the kitchen. It has food, flashlights, and a first-aid kit.
Amy: Let’s turn on the radio for news. I guess the quake measures at least 5 on the Richter Scale.
Bill: Who know what might happen tomorrow, next month or next year? After all, this city is said to be located in an earthquake zone
Amy: There hasn’t been much activity for dozens of years
Bill: But a major quake may hit at any time.
Amy: I think we’d better move to an earthquake-proof house.
Bill: Smart thinking!
MODEL2 Things are a bit out of balance.
John: The seventh straight day of rain. It’s too much. Things are a bit out of balance.
Susan: Yeah, too much rain here, too little there. Last summer firestorms destroyed many parts of the globe.
John: Firestorms are a pretty interesting phenomenon. They generate so much heat that they create their own weather. Nothing you can do about it.
Susan: Once a fire developed into a firestorm, there’s no stopping it. Some people think we shouldn’t try.
John: You mean, just let the forests burn? How can we watch people’s homes on fire with folded arms?
Susan: Some experts argue that forest fires are part of nature, and that we shouldn’t try to interfere, except, of course, to save homes and lives.
John: It seems wrong to let all good timber burn. What a waste that would be!
Susan: But that’s nature’s way of cleaning up the debris that collects on the forest floor and creating new kind of growth.
John: Maybe so, but it still seems wrong to just let fires burn.
Susan: After all, there have been verdant forests for millions of years without man’s help fighting the fires.
John: That may be true, but I still think it’s wrong to not put out forest fires
MODEL3 This is the island that disappeared
Susan: Just look at that sky. Aren’t the twilight colors beautiful?
John: Um. Even heard of the famous sunsets that followed the Krakatoa volcano eruption?
Susan: Do you mean the Pacific island that blew up in the eighteen hundreds?
John: Yeah. Deep red sunsets appeared on the horizon for the three years after the explosion.
Susan: They were caused by the fine dust that spread through the earth’s atmosphere.
John: People 5,000 kilometers away from Krakatoa reported hearing the enormous blast.
Susan: And ashes even fell on Singapore, more than 500 kilometers to the north.
John: As I remember, two thirds of the island simply disappeared, blown to bits.
Susan: And then giant sea waves followed, killing more than 40,000 people who lived there.
John: Apparently the biggest of those waves traveled 4,000 kilometers in just 12 hours.
Susan: I don’t think there’s ever been another natural disaster quite like it, do you?
John: A mountain called Vesuvius erupted, burying the nearby town of Pompeii in ashes; but that was in a smaller scale.
Now Your Turn
Josh: Maggie, I’ve just read a fire destroyed much of the forest on Day Mountain in Hong Kong the other day.
Maggie: I’ve heard that too. The local government sent firefighters and even helicopters to try to put out the fire. But I think they shouldn’t have tried.
Josh: You mean, they should just let the forests burn? How can they stand by and watch people’s homes go up in flames?
Maggie: Some experts argue that forest fires are a phase in the cycle of nature, and we shouldn’t interfere. Except, of course, to save lives.
Josh: It seems wrong to allow fires to burn up good timber. What a waste that would be! You see, the fire-hit area extends nearly 4,00 square meters.
Maggie: But that’s nature’s way of cleaning up the debris that collects on the forest floor and creating space for new growth.
Josh: That may be true, but it still seems wrong to just let fires burn. They destroyed not only timber, but many rare butterflies living there
Maggie: Anyway, there have been verdant forests for millions of years without man’s help in combating fires.
Josh: You may be correct, but I still think it’s wrong to not put out forest fires. If too many trees are destroyed, the very existence of human beings is threatened
V. Let’s Talk
A natural disaster is the consequence of a hazardous event, occurring when human activities are affected by adverse natural phenomena such as flood, drought, hailstorm, heat wave, forest fore, hurricanes or typhoons, tornado, tsunami, landsides and mudslides, or volcanic eruption. The resulting deaths or property damages depend on the human ability to resist the disasters.
Sometimes two seemingly different disasters may be related to each other. For example, an undersea earthquake may result in a tsunami. While there is a long dry spell in one area, there may be a great flood in another. It is necessary for human beings to understand and combat natural disasters.
A drought is a long-lasting weather pattern consisting of dry conditions with very little or no precipitation. During this period, food and water supplies can run low, and other condition, such as famine, can result. Drought can last for several years and are particularly damaging in areas in which the residents depend on agriculture for survival.
A flood follows too much rain or water in a location, and could be the result of many different conditions. Floods can be caused by heavy rainfall from a storm, including thunderstorms, rapid melting of a large amounts of snow, or rivers which swell from too much precipitation upstream, causing widespread damage to areas downstream. Another possible cause of a flood is the bursting of man-made dams.
Natural disaster Adverse natural phenomena such as flood, drought, hailstorm, heat wave, forest fore, hurricanes or typhoons, tornado, tsunami, landsides and mudslides, or volcanic eruption.
Relationship Between Two Disasters They are related to each other. An undersea earthquake may result in a tsunami. While there is a long dry spell I none area, there may be a great flood in another.
Drought During a drought, food and water supplies can run low, and other condition, such as famine, can result. Drought are particularly damaging in areas in which the residents depend on agriculture for survival.
Flood Floods can be caused by long rainfall from a storm, including thunderstorms, rapid melting of a large amounts of snow, or rivers which swell from too much precipitation upstream, causing widespread damage to areas down stream. Another cause of a flood is the bursting of man-made dams.
VI. Further Listening and Speaking
Task1: Description of a Tsunami
A strange hissing noise filled the air, said witnesses to the disaster, and that was followed by an ear-shattering roar. Racing toward the shore at speed of 450 kilometers per hour was a vast black wall of water more than 20 meters high.
For sunbathers on the beaches and diners at outdoor beachfront cafes there was no escape. Along with fishing boats, automobiles, trams, trains, early-morning shoppers and beach bungalows they were smashed to the ground and swept as far as two kilometers inland by the force of the tsunami that came after a force 9 earthquake deep under the sea off the coast of Sumatra.
Many local residents, including numerous children, rushed onto the beach to pick up fish thrown ashore by the first giant wave. Before they could return to safety, a second powerful wave struck and swept them to their deaths at sea.
When the worst of the waters finally retreated back into the ocean, bodies lay everywhere, and many hung from trees. At least 140,000 people died in the flooding around the rim of the Indian Ocean and as far away as Kenya and Somalia. Still missing are more than a thousand people, among then 200 Indonesian fishmen.
Hundreds of fishing village in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand are cut off from supplies of clean water, food and medicines. Relief efforts from across the globe are rushing towards the disaster area. Whether they will be able to prevent further deaths from disease remain to be seen.
8. What happened after shoppers were smashed to the ground?
9. According to the passage, what happened after the first giant wave?
10. How many people are missing in the disaster?
11. What may follow immediately after the disaster, according to the passage?
12. What id the passage mainly about?
Keys: 1.A 2.C 3.B 4.D 5.A
Task 2: Drought in South Africa
South Africa is heading for a disaster in the new year because of a drought. The water level at some dams have dropped below 20% while the ground water table has dropped by as much s 30 meters
Emergency measure have been introduced ensure that millions of people have enough water to survive. In rural areas without dams, the government has to send water by truck and sink new, deeper wells to provide drinking water. Tanked water is provided about 3.5 million South Africans. People here normally use barely 30 liters a day, and is impossible to further limit their usage. That is why agricultural use has to be restricted.
More than 100,000 farm workers might lose their jobs if it does not rain soon. Water restrictions, which have a negative influence on the agricultural sector in particular, have already been imposed in several districts. Farmers have been forced to stop irrigating their crops to ensure that enough water is available for domestic use. Maize farmers in the eastern parts of the country have almost no hope of planting their crop in time. They need rain within the next two weeks to be able to start planting. Where farmers did sow, the seedlings have been scorched under the sun.
An estimated 40,000 head of livestock have died because of the dry spell. Thousands of stock farmers will have to slaughter their livestock on a large scale because there is no grass left.
The parts suffering the most were rural areas without dams. If it does not rain, the people there will face a huge crisis.
Task3: Brave firemen
A fire started on some grassland near a farm in Alberta, Canada. The fire department from the nearby town was called to put the fire out. The fire proved to be more than the small town fire department could handle, so someone suggested that a rural volunteer fire company be called. Since the company was composed entirely of men over65, there was doubt that they would be of assistance. But with no other help available, the farmer called the fire company away.
The volunteer fire company’s men arrived in a dilapidated old fire truck. The truck drove straight toward the fire and, instead of stopping in front of the fire, drove right onto the middle of the flames. The volunteer firemen jumped off the truck and started spraying water in all directions. Soon they had put out the center of the fire, breaking the blaze into two easily controllable parts. After an hour of intense fighting, they had extinguished the fire.
The farmer was impressed by the brave volunteer firemen and their work. He was so grateful that his farm had been spared that he presented the volunteer company wit ha check for $10,000.
A local news reporter asked the volunteer fire captain what the company planned to do with the funds. The fireman looked him right in the eye and said, “That should be obvious. The first thing we’re going to do is to get the brakes fixed on that stupid fire truck.”
1. Since the company was composed entirely of men over65, there was doubt that they would be of assistance. But the farmer called the fire company away because the fire proved to be more than the small town fire department could handle, and there was no other help available.
2. The truck drove straight toward the fire and, instead of stopping in front of the fire, drove right onto the middle of the flames.
3. After an hour of intense fighting, they had extinguished the fire.
4. He presented the volunteer company wit ha check for $10,000.
The captain said, “The first thing we’re going to do is to get the brakes fixed on that stupid fire truck.” That suggests that they drove right into the middle of the flames because of useless brakes rather bravery.
A big twister struck the Sydney to Hobart yacht race late on Wednesday, nearly knocking out the team highly favored to win, Nicorette.
Disaster struck the Swedish maxi yacht off the east coast of Australia, tearing its mainsail and nearly carrying away skipper Ludde Ingvall.
When asked about his encounter with the waterspout, Ingvall described the experience as “surreal”.
Ingvall, a seasoned sailor, said that he’s seen twisters before but had always managed to avoid them. This one, however, seemed to be following them and they had no choice but to go right through the middle of it.
The encounter with the twister forced Nicorette to drop into fifteenth place overnight.
Crew member valiantly battled extreme weather while attempting to keep the yacht o course.
Skipper Ingvall reported that the team was now in sixth place and making up ground with the use of its backup mainsail.
Nicorette managed to get back on track on Thursday, closing the gap on team Illbruck of Germany, the current leader.
This footage from video taken aboard the Nicorette shows the terrible conditions they experienced as they struggled to stay in the race.
It took real teamwork to get the unlucky yacht back into this position. Even under these harshest of conditions, the Nicorette team managed to work together to make a miraculous recovery. But the team has a history of successful teamwork.
Last year, Nicorette achieved the second-fastest line honors victory in the 57-year history of the 630 nautical mile Sydney to Hobart race. The only yacht to surpass Nicorette’s time was the 60-foot Danish Nokia, setting the record of 1day, 19 hours, 48 minutes, and 2 seconds in 1999.
Earlier on Thursday, 8 of the 75 entrants dropped out of the race after a night of thunderstorm activity and winds of up to 30 knots.
Team Illbruck is the overall winner so far after two legs o the race, but there is still more race to go.
Boat are currently en route to Auckland, New Zealand as they begin the third leg of the around the world race.
Nicorette still has a chance to finish in one of the top spots despite the incredible obstacle that almost stopped them.