Passage One

Many people enjoy secret codes. The harder the code, the more some people will try to figure it out. In wartime, codes are especially important. They help army send news about battles and the sizes of enemy forces. Neither side wants its codes broken by the other. One very important code was never broken. It was used during World War II by the Americans. It was a spoken code never written down. And it was developed and used by Navajo Indians. They were called “the Navajo code talkers” the Navajos created the code in their own language. Navajo is hard to learn. Only a few people know it. So it was pretty certain that the enemy would not be able to understand the cold talkers. In addition, the talkers used code words. They called a submarine an iron fish and a small bomb thrown by hand a potato. If they wanted to spell something, they used code words for letters of the alphabet. For instance, the letter A was ant or apple or eggs. The code talkers worked mostly in the islands in the Pacific. One or two would be assigned to a group of soldiers. They would send messages by field telephone to the code talker in the next group. And he would relay the information to his commander. The code talkers played an important part in several battles. They helped troops coordinate their movements and attacks. After the war, the US government honored them for what they had accomplished. Theirs was the most successful wartime code ever used.

Q9 What does the speaker say many people enjoy doing?

Q10 What do we learn about Navajo code talkers?

Q11 What is the speaker mainly talking about?