7步写好一篇有说服力的论文
作者:梦树|2017年07月14日 17:16
  • 双语
  • 中文
  • 英语

在论文写作时,作者的目的就是通过影响读者来使他们提出自己的观点。这比起论证来说更难,论证包括举出事实来证明论点。如同巧舌如簧的政客一样,一篇成功的论文也可以在情感上影响到读者。有说服力的演讲者们并不一定要使读者或听者完全改变自己的观点,而是以另一种不同的方式来考虑一个观点或焦点。

While it's important to use credible arguments supported by facts, the persuasive writer wants to convince the reader or listener that his or her argument is not simply correct, but convincing as well.
使用以事实支撑的可信的论点十分重要,有说服力的作者想让读者或听者相信,他们的观点不单单是正确的,而且还是有说服力的。

There may be several different ways that you chose a topic for your persuasive essay. Your teacher may give you a prompt or a choice of several prompts. Or, you may have to come up with a topic, based on your own experience or the texts you've been studying. If you do have some choice in the topic selection, it's helpful if you select one that interests you and about which you already feel strongly.
你可以使用不同的方式来为你的论文选择一个主题。你的老师可能会给你一个提示或可供选择的方案。或者,你可能会基于你自己的经验或者正在学习的文本来提出一个主题。如果你可以选择多个主题,你可以选择一个自己感兴趣和印象深刻的。

Another key factor to consider before you begin writing is the audience. If you're trying to persuade a roomful of teachers that homework is bad, for instance, you'll use a different set of arguments than you would if the audience was made up of high school students or parents.
在写作之前,还有一个要考虑的要素就是观众了。如果你是想要让在场的老师们明白留家庭作业不好,那么你就得采取一套面对高中学生或家长时截然不同的论据了。

Once you have the topic and have considered the audience, there are a few steps to prepare yourself before you begin writing your persuasive essay:
在你定下主题并考虑到观众之后,在开始论文写作之前,还有几个准备步骤:

1.Brainstorm:Use whatever method of brainstorming works best for you. Write down your thoughts about the topic. Make sure you know where you stand on the issue. You can even try asking yourself some questions. Ideally, you'll try to ask yourself questions that could be used to refute your argument, or that could convince a reader of the opposite point of view.
头脑风暴:使用任何最适合你的头脑风暴方式。写下你对主题的看法。确保明白自己所站的问题的立场。你甚至可以试着问自己一些问题。理想状态下,你可以问一些对你的论点进行反驳的问题,或者使持对立意见的读者信服的问题。

If you don't think of the opposing point of view, chances are your instructor or a member of your audience will.
如果你不对相反意见进行思考,你的指导者或观众就有可能进行这项活动。

2.Investigate:Talk to classmates, friends, and teachers about the topic. What do they think about it? The responses that you get from these people will give you a preview of how they would respond to your opinion. Talking out your ideas, and testing your opinions, is a good way to collect evidence. Try making your arguments out loud. Do you sound shrill and angry, or determined and self-assured? What you say is as important as how you say it.
调查:和同学、朋友和老师谈谈对主题的认识。他们是怎么认为的?你从这些人那儿得到的反馈可以让你预见他们对你的观点的看法。说说你的想法,评估一下你的观点是收集论据的好方法。试着大声说出你的论点。你的声音听起来是尖锐愤怒的,还是果断自信的?你所说的内容和你表达的方式同样重要。

3.Think:It may seem obvious, but you really have to think about how you are going to persuade your audience. Use a calm, reasoning tone. While persuasive essay writing is at its most basic an exercise in emotion, try not to choose words that are belittling to the opposing viewpoint, or that rely on insults. Explain to your reader why, despite the other side of the argument, your viewpoint is the "right," most logical one.
思考:这似乎是显而易见的,但是你确实得想想自己应该怎样去说服观众。你得使用沉着、论证的语调。论文写作从最基本上来说是情感的触动,不要用一些贬低对立观点的词语,或者一味地侮辱对方。向你的读者解释在对立观点的存在下,为什么你的观点是正确的,最符合逻辑的。

4.Find examples:There are many writers and speakers who offer compelling, persuasive arguments. Martin Luther King Jr's "I Have a Dream" speech is widely cited as one of the most persuasive arguments in American rhetoric.
寻找例子:有许许多多的作者和演讲者提出引人注目、有说服力的论据。很多人将马丁·路德·金的演讲《我有一个梦想》作为美国修辞学中说服力最强的论据之一。

Eleanor Roosevelt's "The Struggle for Human Rights" is another example of a skilled writer trying to persuade an audience. But be careful: While you can emulate a certain writer's style, be careful not to stray too far into imitation. Be sure the words you're choosing are your own, not words that sound like they've come from a thesaurus (or worse, that they're someone else's words entirely).
埃莉诺·罗斯福《为了人权而奋斗》则是另外一个极富技巧的作者说服观众的例子。但是注意:当你模仿某位作者的风格时,要注意分寸。确保你所选用的词语是自己想出来的,而不是那些听起来像是从辞典里抄录的(甚至是照搬某人的原文)。

5.Organize:In any paper that you write you should make sure that your points are well-organized and that your supporting ideas are clear, concise, and to the point. In persuasive writing, though, it is especially important that you use specific examples to illustrate your main points. Don't give your reader the impression that you are not educated on the issues related to your topic. Choose your words carefully.
组织语言:不管是写作哪种类型的文本,你应该确保自己的观点是有条有理的,你的支持论点是清晰、简洁和切题的。在论文写作中,虽然使用具体的例子来阐述你的主要观点很重要,但是不要让你的读者觉得你在关于主题的一些问题上不够专业。选词需要谨慎。

6.Stick to the script:The best essays follow a simple set of rules: First, tell your reader what you're going to tell them. Then, tell them. Then, tell them what you've told them. Have a strong, concise thesis statement before you get past the second paragraph, because this is the clue to the reader or listener to sit up and pay attention.
忠于主题:最好的文章都遵循着一套简单的规则:首先,让你的读者知道你准备告诉他们什么。然后,向他们进行阐述。然后告诉他们你说了什么话。在你进行到第二段时,可以做一个简短有力的观点陈述,因为这是在提示读者或听者坐好并集中注意力。

7.Review and revise:If you know you're going to have more than one opportunity to present your essay, learn from audience or reader feedback, and continue to try to improve your work. A good argument can become a great one if properly fine-tuned.
回顾和修改:如果你知道自己有不止一次的机会来展示你的文章,你就可以从观众或读者的反馈中进行学习。如果调整合理,一篇好的论文可以变得更加出色。

声明:本双语文章的中文翻译系沪江英语原创内容,转载请注明出处。中文翻译仅代表译者个人观点,仅供参考。如有不妥之处,欢迎指正。

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