Section 1 & Section 2重点场景（生活类）：事故报告，招聘面试，医疗健康，选课须知，旅行住宿，剧院环境介绍，公园导览，校园设施导览。
Section 3 & Section 4重点场景（学术类）：校园活动，动物讲座，选课咨询，课程讨论，流程介绍，作业反馈，论文讨论，金融与商业，心理学。
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS or A NUMBER for each answer.
The woman was getting something for lunch when the accident happened.
Time of accident: (1) _____
Driver failed to stop at the junction of Monks Road and High Street.
There were (2) _____ people in the car. all around
20 years old.
The car hit a woman on her (3) _____
The car was last seen heading towards the (4)
The (5) _____ at the junction are out of order.
The car may have been a red Ford Fiesta. One of the car doors is (6) _____
Registration number: Y48 (7) _____
Witness name: Rita (8) _____
Address: 19. (9) _____
Telephone number: 0232 566788 Mobile number: (10) 07834 _____
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
11 The speaker says solar panels
A are expensive.
B should be considered more seriously.
C are not very popular.
12 In the speaker s opinion, most people
A neglect to turn the heating down.
B wash their clothes too often.
C do not use the kitchen efficiently.
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS or A NUMBER for each answer.
Living in (13) _____ accommodation? Check windows and doors for draughts.
Don't leave laptops and TVs on (14) overnight.
Don’t use (15) _____ than you need when making hot drinks.
Put (16) _____ pots and pans when boiling water.
Where possible, avoid placing the refrigerator next to the
Remember to turn down the fridge temperature control in the (18) _____
Don't forget to (19) _____ the freezer and don't put too much food in it
Reduce the temperature of your washing machine to (20) _____ degrees
Choose the correct letter, A B or C.
21 What did Alice do when she first arrived at the university Open Day?
A She had a coffee.
B She looked around the campus.
C She went to one of the events.
22 Which of the following is NOT on the campus?
A a supermarket
B a bank C a bookshop
23 Why does Oliver think it is a good idea to register?
A The university will know you attended.
B You get an information pack.
C You cannot attend events unless you register.
24 What is the main factor for Alice in her choice of university?
A its facilities
B its links to industry
C the number of mature students
25 Which area of work is Oliver interested in?
C software development
What does Alice say about the events in the afternoon?
Write the correct letter. A, B or C next to Questions 26-28.
A She will attend.
B She might attend.
C She will not attend.
26 a talk about the year abroad
27 the exhibition in the Physics Department
28 a talk by the head of department
Choose the correct letter, A B or C.
29 Which employers offer only unpaid work?
A accountancy firms
B the university
C campus retail outlets
A plans to live at home if he gets a place at the university.
B will live on campus if he gets a place at the university.
C does not yet know where he will live if he gets a place at the university.
Pygmy Blue Whale Research
• Pygmy blue whales: Before 1966 it is likely they were (31) _____ with the Antarctic blue whales.
- Aim of study: To find out more about their (32) _____ and movements.
• Method: Whales are tagged with an antenna. When the antenna communicates with a number of satellites, the whale's (33) _____ can be identified.
Researchers access the results using the project (34) _____
• Findings: The whales travel from the (35) _____ of Australia to breeding grounds in Indonesia during March and April, and return to Australian waters in (36) _____ Pygmy whales do not go without (37) _____ whilst they are in their breeding grounds.
• Conservation issues: The effect of (38) _____ routes on communication between whales.
Conservation efforts can take place over a(n) (39) _____ area now there is evidence that they migrate out of Australian waters.
• Future studies: To explore whether pygmy whales off the southern coast of Australia follow the same northerly migratory routes as those studied or whether they travel to a(n) (40) _____
1 1.15/one fifteen/ quarter past one
2 three / 3
3 bicycle / bike
4 town centre
5 traffic lights
9 Althorpe Road
15 more water
16 a lid on/lids on
18 (colder) winter (months)
35 west coast
37 food / feeding
READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
The family of mammals called bovids belongs to the Artiodactyl class, which also includes giraffes. Bovids are highly diverse group consisting of 137 species, some of which are man’s most important domestic animals.
Bovids are well represented in most parts of Eurasia and Southeast Asian islands, but they are by far the most numerous and diverse in the latter. Some species of bovid are solitary, but others live in large groups with complex social structures. Although bovids have adapted to a wide range of habitats, from arctic tundra to deep tropical forest, the majority of species favour open grassland, scrub or desert. This diversity of habitat is also matched by great diversity in size and form: at one extreme is the royal antelope of West Africa, which stands a mere 25 cm at the shoulder; at the other, the massively built bisons of North America and Europe, growing to a shoulder height of 2.2m.
Despite differences in size and appearance, bovids are united by the possession of certain common features. All species are ruminants, which means that they retain undigested food in their stomachs, and regurgitate it as necessary. Bovids are almost exclusively herbivorous. Typically their teeth are highly modified for browsing and grazing: grass or foliage is cropped with the upper lip and lower incisors (the upper incisors are usually absent), and then ground down by the cheek teeth. As well as having cloven, or split, hooves, the males of all bovid species and the females of most carry horns. Bovid horns have bony cores covered in a sheath of horny material that is constantly renewed from within; they are unbranched and never shed. They vary in shape and size: the relatively simple horns of a large Indian buffalo may measure around 4 m from tip to tip along the outer curve, while the various gazelles have horns with a variety of elegant curves.
Five groups, or sub-families, may be distinguished: Bovinae, Antelope, Caprinae, Cephalophinae and Antilocapridae. The sub-family Bovinae comprises most of the larger bovids, including the African bongo, and nilgae, eland, bison and cattle. Unlike most other bovids they are all non-territorial. The ancestors of the various species of domestic cattle banteng, gaur, yak and water buffalo are generally rare and endangered in the wild, while the auroch (the ancestor of the domestic cattle of Europe) is extinct.
The term ‘antelope’ is not a very precise zoological name - it is used to loosely describe a number of bovids that have followed different lines of development. Antelopes are typically long-legged, fast-running species, often with long horns that may be laid along the back when the animal is in full flight. There are two main sub-groups of antelope: Hippotraginae, which includes the oryx and the addax, and Antilopinae, which generally contains slighter and more graceful animals such as gazelle and the springbok. Antelopes are mainly grassland species, but many have adapted to flooded grasslands: pukus, waterbucks and lechwes are all good at swimming, usually feeding in deep water, while the sitatunga has long, splayed hooves that enable it to walk freely on swampy ground.
The sub-family Caprinae includes the sheep and the goat, together with various relatives such as the goral and the tahr. Most are woolly or have long hair. Several species, such as wild goats, chamois and ibex, are agile cliff - and mountain-dwellers. Tolerance of extreme conditions is most marked in this group: Barbary and bighorn sheep have adapted to arid deserts, while Rocky Mountain sheep survive high up in mountains and musk oxen in arctic tundra.
The duiker of Africa belongs to the Cephalophinae sub-family. It is generally small and solitary, often living in thick forest. Although mainly feeding on grass and leaves, some duikers - unlike most other bovids -are believed to eat insects and feed on dead animal carcasses, and even to kill small animals.
The pronghorn is the sole survivor of a New World sub-family of herbivorous ruminants, the Antilocapridae in North America. It is similar in appearance and habits to the Old World antelope. Although greatly reduced in numbers since the arrival of Europeans, and the subsequent enclosure of grasslands, the pronghorn is still found in considerable numbers throughout North America, from Washington State to Mexico. When alarmed by the approach of wolves or other predators, hairs on the pronghorn’s rump stand erect, so showing and emphasising the white patch there.
At this signal, the whole herd gallops off at speed of over 60 km per hour.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.
1 In which region is the biggest range of bovids to be found?
C North America
D South-east Asia
2 Most bovids have a preference for living in
B small groups
C tropical forest
D wide open spaces
3 Which of the following features do all bovids have in common?
A Their horns are shot
B They have upper incisors
C They store food in the body
D Their hooves are undivided
Look at the following characteristics (Question 4-8) and the list of sub-families below. Match each characteristic with the correct sub-family, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in boxes 4-8 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once
4 can endure very harsh environments
5 includes the ox and the cow
6 may supplement its diet with meat
7 can usually move at speed
8 does not defend a particular area of land
List of sub-families
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
9 What is the smallest species of Bovid called?
10 Which species of Bovinae has now died out?
11 What facilitates the movement of the sitatunga over wetland?
12 What sort of terrain do barbary sheep live in?
13 What is the only living member of the Antilocapridae sub-family?
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Photovoltaics on the rooftop
A natural choice for powering the family home
A In the past, urban home owners have not always had much choice in the way electricity is supplied to their homes. Now, however, there is a choice, and a rapidly increasing number of households worldwide are choosing the solar energy option. Solar energy, the conversion of sunlight into energy, is made possible through the use of 'photovoltaics', which are simple appliances that fit onto the roof of a house.
B The photovoltaics-powered home remains connected to the power lines, but no storage is required on-site, only a box of electronics (the inverter) to the interface between the photovoltaics and the grid network. Figure 1 illustrates the system. During the day, when the home may not be using much electricity, excess power from the solar array is fed back to the grid, to factories and offices that need daytime power. At night, power flows the opposite way. The grid network effectively provides storage. If the demand for electricity is well matched to when the sun shines, solar energy is especially valuable. This occurs in places like California in the US and Japan, where air-conditioning loads for offices and factories are large but heating loads for homes are small.
C The first systematic exploration of the use of photovoltaics on homes began in the US during the 1970s. A well-conceived program started with the sitting of a number of residential experiment stations' at selected locations around the country, representing different climatic zones. These stations contained a number of 'dummy' houses, each with a different solar-energy system design. Homes within the communities close to these stations were monitored to see how well their energy use matched the energy generated by the stations' dummy roofs. A change in US government priorities in the early 1980s halted this program.
D With the US effort dropping away, the Japanese Sunshine Project came to the fore. A large residential test station was installed on Rokko Island beginning in 1986. This installation consists of 18 'dummy' homes. Each equipped with its own 2-5 kilowatt photovoltaic system (about 20 - 50 square meters for each system). Some of these simulated homes have their own electrical appliances inside, such as TV sets, refrigerators and air conditioning units, which switch on and off under computer control providing a lavish lifestyle for the non-existent occupants. For the other systems, electronics simulate these household loads. This test station has allowed the technical issues involved in using photovoltaics within the electricity network to be explored in a systematic way, under well-controlled test conditions. With no insurmountable problems identified, the Japanese have used the experience gained from this station to begin their own massive residential photovoltaics campaign.
E Meanwhile, Germany began a very important '1,000 roof program' in 1990, aimed at installing photovoltaics on the roofs of 1,000 private homes. Large federal and regional government subsidies were involved, accounting in most cases for 70% of the total system costs. The program proved immensely popular, forcing its extension to over 2,000 homes scattered across Germany. The success of this program stimulated other European countries to launch similar programs.
F Japan's 'one million roof program' was prompted by the experience gained in the Rokko Island test site and the success of the German 1,000 roof program. The initially quoted aims of the Japanese New Energy Development Organization were to have 70,000 homes equipped with the photovoltaics by the year 2000, on the way to 1 million by 2010. The program made a modest start in 1994, when 539 systems were installed with a government subsidy of 50 percent. Under this program, entire new suburban developments are using photovoltaics.
G The Japanese initiative in embracing residential photovoltaics on a large scale prompted responses in both Europe and the US. The European Commission has called for one million solar residential systems before the year 2010, with 500,000 in Europe and 500,000 in the developing world, to be subsidised by the Commission. In 1997, a similar one million roof target was announced in the US. Since then, several other countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Australia, have announced their own targets for residential photovoltacis.
H This is good news, not only for the photovoltaic industry, but for everyone concerned with the environment. The use of fossil fuels to generate electricity is not only costly in financial terms, but also in terms of environmental damage. Gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels in the production of electricity are a major contributor to the greenhouse effect. To deal with this problem, many governments are now proposing stringent targets on the amount of greenhouse gas emissions permitted. These targets mean that all sources of greenhouse gas emissions including residential electricity use, will receive closer attention in the future.
I It is likely that in the future, governments will develop building codes that attempt to constrain the energy demands of new housing. For example, the use of photovoltaics or the equivalent maybe stipulated to lessen demands on the grid network and hence reduce fossil fuel emissions. Approvals for building renovations may also be conditional upon taking such energy-saving measures. If this were to happen, everyone would benefit. Although there is an initial cost in attaching the system to the rooftop, the householder's outlay is soon compensated with the savings on energy bills. In addition, everyone living on the planet stands to gain from the more benign environmental impact.
Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs A-I. Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-I in boxes 14- 19 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once
14 examples of countries where electricity use is greater during the day than at night
15 a detailed description of an experiment that led to photovoltaics being promoted throughout the country
16 the negative effects of using conventional means of generating electricity
17 an explanation of the photovoltaics system
18 the long-term benefits of using photovoltaics
19 a reference to wealthy countries being prepared to help less wealthy countries have access to photovoltaics
Questions 20 - 26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 20 - 26 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
20 Photovoltaics are used to store electricity.
21 Since the 1970s, the US government has provided continuous support for the use of photovoltaics on homes.
22 The solar-powered houses on Rokko Island are uninhabited.
23 In 1994, the Japanese government was providing half the money required for installing photovoltaics on homes.
24 Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Australia all have strict goals with regard to greenhouse gas emissions.
25 Residential electricity use is the major source of greenhouse gas emission.
26 Energy-saving measures must now be included in the design of all new homes and improvements to buildings.
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Reading Passage 3 has six sections, A-F.
Choose the correct heading for sections B-F from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i Disagreement about the reading process
ii The roots of the debate
in A combined approach
iv Methods of teaching reading
V A controversial approach
vi Inconclusive research
vii Research with learners
viii Allowing teachers more control
ix A debate amongst educators
Example Section A ix
27 Section B
28 Section C
29 Section D
30 Section E
31 Section F
How should reading be taught?
By Keith Kayner an Barbara R Foorman
A Learning to speak is automatic for almost all children, but learning to read requires elaborate instruction and conscious effort. Well aware of the difficulties, educators have given a great deal of thought to how they can best help children learn to read. No single method has triumphed. Indeed, heated arguments about the most appropriate form of reading instruction continue to polarise the teaching community.
B Three general approaches have been tried. In one, called whole-word instruction, children learn by rote how to recognise at a glance a vocabulary of 50 to 100 words. Then they gradually acquire other words, often through seeing them used over and over again in the context of a story.
Speakers of most languages learn the relationship between letters and the sounds associated with them (phonemes). That is, children are taught how to use their knowledge of the alphabet to sound out words. This procedure constitutes a second approach to teaching reading - phonics.
Many schools have adopted a different approach: the whole-language method. The strategy here relies on the child’s experience with language. For example, students are offered engaging books and are encouraged to guess the words that they do not know by considering the context of the sentence or by looking for clues in the storyline and illustrations, rather than trying to sound them out.
Many teachers adopted the whole-language approach because of its intuitive appeal. Making reading fun promises to keep children motivated, and learning to read depends more on what the student does than on what the teacher does. The presumed benefits of whole-language instruction — and the contrast to the perceived dullness of phonics - led to its growing acceptance across America during the 1990s, and a movement away from phonics.
C However, many linguists and psychologists objected strongly to the abandonment of phonics in American schools. Why was this so? In short, because research had clearly demonstrated that understanding how letters related to the component sounds in words is critically important in reading. This conclusion rests, in part, on knowledge of how experienced readers make sense of words on a page.
Advocates of whole-language instruction have argued forcefully that people often derive meanings directly from print without ever determining the sound of the word. Some psychologists today accept this view, but most believe that reading is typically a process of rapidly sounding out words mentally. Compelling evidence for this comes from experiments which show that subjects often confuse homophones (words that sound the same, such as ‘rose’ and ‘rows'). This supports the idea that readers convert strings of letters to sounds.
D In order to evaluate different approaches to teaching reading, a number of experiments have been carried out, firstly with college students, then with school pupils. Investigators trained English-speaking college students to read using unfamiliar symbols such as Arabic letters (the phonics approach), while another group learned entire words associated with certain strings of Arabic letters (whole-word). Then both groups were required to read a new set of words constructed from the original characters. In general, readers who were taught the rules of phonics could read many more new words than those trained with a whole-word procedure.
Classroom studies comparing phonics with either whole-word or whole-language instruction are also quite illuminating. One particularly persuasive study compared two programmes used in 20 first-grade classrooms. Half the students were offered traditional reading instruction, which included the use of phonics drills and applications. The other half were taught using an individualised method that drew from their experiences with language; these children produced their own booklets of stories and developed sets of words to be recognised (common components of the whole-language approach). This study found that the first group scored higher at year’s end on tests of reading and comprehension.
E If researchers are so convinced about the need for phonics instruction, why does the debate continue? Because the controversy is enmeshed in the philosophical differences between traditional and progressive (or new) approaches, differences that have divided educators for years. The progressives challenge the results of laboratory tests and classroom studies on the basis of a broad philosophical scepticism about the values of such research. They champion student-centred learning and teacher empowerment. Sadly, they fail to realise that these very admirable educational values are equally consistent with the teaching of phonics.
F If schools of education insisted that would-be reading teachers learned something about the vast research in linguistics and psychology that bears on reading, their graduates would be more eager to use phonics and would be prepared to do so effectively. They could allow their pupils to apply the principles of phonics while reading for pleasure. Using whole-language activities to supplement phonics instruction certainly helps to make reading fun and meaningful for children, so no one would want to see such tools discarded. Indeed, recent work has indicated that the combination of literature-based instruction and phonics is more powerful than either method used alone.
Teachers need to strike a balance. But in doing so, we urge them to remember that reading must be grounded in a firm understanding of the connections between letters and sounds. Educators who deny this reality are neglecting decades of research. They are also neglecting the needs of their students.
Questions 32 - 36
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 32-36 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
32 The whole-language approach relates letters to sounds.
33 Many educators believe the whole-language approach to be the most interesting way to teach children to read.
34 Research supports the theory that we read without linking words to sounds.
35 Research has shown that the whole-word approach is less effective than the whole-language approach.
36 Research has shown that phonics is more successful than both the whole-word and whole-language approaches.
Questions 37 - 40
Complete the summary of sections E and F using the list of words, A-G, below.
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
In the teaching community, 37...................question the usefulness of research into methods of teaching reading. These critics believe that 38..................is incompatible with student-centred learning. In the future, teachers need to be aware of 39................. so that they understand the importance of phonics. They should not, however, ignore the ideas of 40.....................which make reading enjoyable for learners.
A the phonics method
B the whole-word method
C the whole-language method
G research studies
9. royal antelope
10. the auroch
11. long slayed hooves
12. arid desert
24. NOT GIVEN
25. NOT GIVEN
35. NOT GIVEN
题目：The charts below show information about players of electronic games in South Korea in 2003. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.
The three pie charts indicate the age and gender disparities of electronic game players in South Korea in 2003, as well as the popularity of several best-selling game types during that time. Generally speaking, South Korean players were mainly composed of males under 35 years old and the action game was the most welcomed.
To be more specific, in South Korea, 38% players were under 18, almost the same proportion as those aged between 18 and 35 who took up the largest ratio by 39%, while less than a quarter of players were over 35, roughly 23%. A more significant difference was gender distribution: 72% players were males, which was nearly three times the population of their female counterparts.
In regard to the players’ favourite games, the ones related to action undoubtedly ranked the first with a proportion of 43%, followed by sports and racing games, taking up 20% and 17% respectively. Educational and role playing games saw the same distribution of 7% and other types of games accounted for the rest of 6%.
①disparity: n. 区别，差异
②gender distributions: 性别分布
③counterpart: n. 同伴；对应物
④undoubtedly: adv. 毫无疑问地
Some people believe that the best way to build a happier society is to ensure that there are only small differences between the richest and the poorest members. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think that the government should offer financial support and care to old people, while others think that people should save money for their future life. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
Some people say that governments should spend money on measures to save languages that are used by few speakers, while others believe it's a waste of financial resources. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
The government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
The government should spend money in promoting sport and art in school, rather than sponsoring professional sports and art events in communities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people said the government shouldn't spend money in building theaters and sports stadiums; they should spend more money on medical care and education. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people think that it is more important to plant more trees in open area in towns and cities than provides more housing. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think it is more important for government to spend public money on promoting healthy lifestyle in order to prevent illness than to spend it on the treatment of people who are already ill. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Nowadays, most people learn academic study in university, but others think we should encourage to learn vocational skills more, do you agree or disagree?
The best way to teach children to cooperate is through team sports at school. What extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people say that playing computer games is bad for children in every aspect. Others say that playing computer games can have positive effects on the way children develop. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people think that in order to continue improving the quality of high school education, students should be encouraged to evaluate and criticize their teachers, while others assume this could result in the loss of respect and dignity for teachers. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Some working parents believe childcare centers can provide best care for children, while others think family members like grandparents can do it better. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
In countries (where there is high unemployment most pupils should be offered only primary education; there is no point in offering secondary education to those who will have no hope of finding a job. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
In recent years, young people in many countries choose to live by themselves. What are the reasons and is it positive or negative for the development of the society？
Nowadays, some people think the city is no longer a good place for children, they suggest that the country is a better choice. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Anyone can post information on the Internet. Some people say most of what we read on the Internet is inaccurate. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think that robots are very important for humans' future development. Others, however, think that robots are a dangerous invention that could have negative effects on society. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people claim that public museums and art galleries will not be needed because people can see historical objects and works of art by using a computer. Do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
Some people argue that the technology such as mobile phone (cell phone) destroys social interaction. Do you agree or disagree?
Millions of dollars have been spent on space research. But somebody says space research wasted money; they suppose money should be used to improve human's life. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people think everyone should be a vegetarian, because we do not need to eat meat to have a healthy diet. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Interview is the basic form of selecting procedure for most large companies. Some people think it is unreliable and there are some other better methods. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Today, some food travels thousands of miles from farms to consumers. Some people think that it would be better to our environment and economy if people only eat local produced food. To what extent do the disadvantages outweigh the advantages?
We can get knowledge from news, but some people think we cannot trust the journalist. What do you think? What qualities do you think a successful journalist should have?
There is a tendency that news reports in the media focus on problems and emergencies rather than positive developments. It is harmful to the individual and to the society. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Advertising discourages people from being different individuals by making us all want to do the same and look the same. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Research shows that overeating is as harmful as smoking. Therefore, advertising for certain food products should be banned, in the same way as cigarette advertising is banned in many countries. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think it is necessary to use animals for testing medicines intended for human use. Others, however, think it's not right to do that. Discuss both views and give you own opinion.
An increasing number of museums tend to charge admission fees from tourists rather than providing service free of charge. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
Many developing countries are currently expanding their tourist industries. Why is this the case? Is it a positive development?
Some people think most crimes are the result of circumstances like poverty and other social problems. Others believe that they are caused by people who are bad in nature. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people prefer to provide help and support directly to those who need it in their local community. Others, however, prefer to give money to national and international charitable organizations. Discuss both sides and give y our own opinion.
Some people believe famous people's support towards international aid organizations draws the attention to problems, while others think celebrities make the problems less important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
题目：Many developing countries are currently expanding their tourist industries. Why is this the case? Is it a positive development?
解题思路：常见混合类题目主要是先描述一类现象，再要求考生分析出现的原因并进行利弊分析reason + positive/negative。回答这类问题时，主体段可分两部分，一部分写reason，另一部分做讨论。但由于时间限制，应优先确保作文完整，所以讨论部分不需要从正反两方面都全面覆盖，只要选取一类观点并合理论述即可。
Tourism in underdeveloped nations is gaining wide popularity these days due to governments’ great efforts to advocate and expand this kind of tertiary industry. However, despite the rising figures in the annual revenues, I do not regard it as a positive development in the long term, especially for the least developed countries.
Undeniably, tourism is an economic engine with great potential to drive financial growth in developing regions. Presenting jaw-dropping sceneries to the travelers, the natural landscapes also stand as one of the most low-cost sources of income for the less developed countries. Foreigners interested in exotic culture and customs are willing to spend much to experience a life far away from their familiar world. Therefore, expanding such industry is favoured by the government since the economic returns are quick and obvious.
A positive trend as it seems, emphasis on tourism in developing countries may bring more disadvantages in the long run. One of the most obvious challenge is that poor countries may lose their economic autonomy when becoming too reliant on this singular form of industry. Tourism in these areas are heavily dependent on external factors such as climate, consumers’ tastes and foreign policies toward them, all of which are unstable and hard to control. Once something goes wrong in the industry, there is no easy remedy to recover.
Moreover, expanding tourism poses a threat of “brain drain” in developing nations since job positions in such industry require less education and training. Children living in places with high demand for waiters and drivers certainly have less aspiration to attend university, which might seriously peril the future of the nation.
To sum up, focusing on developing tourism indeed brings deprived nations instant financial gains, therefore many countries are counting on it to get out of poverty. However, it does not mean we have found a panacea for the less developed countries, and it is unwise to heavily depend on tourism or even consider it the lifeblood of the nation.
①annual revenues: 年度收入
②jaw-dropping: adj. 令人惊讶的
③exotic: adj. 异国情调的
④easy remedy: 简单的补救方式
⑤brain drain: 人才流失
⑥panacea: n. 万能药，万能方案
⑦lifeblood: n. 命脉
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Do you often use maps?
Well, I think it largely depends on how familiar I am with the place I travel in. I might have to use a map to help me get my destination if I am in a new place. However, a map won’t be so useful when I am in a place where I have lived for a long time.
How often do you use a map?
Well, not quite often. I mean I am a guy who tends to stay at home a lot. However, I may have to refer to a map when I go out to meet my friends for an appointment. For instance, my friends pick a restaurant for dinner, but I have no idea how to get there. In this case, I will rely on a map to show me the simplest way to get to that restaurant in time.
Who taught you to use a map?
Well, if you mean paper maps, I think it is probably my father who did it when I just started learning how to read a map during middle school. However, if you are talking about electronic maps, I guess I learned it myself as it is so easy to learn and use with an app in smartphones.
Do you prefer paper maps or electronic maps?
Obviously, I prefer to use electronic ones as they are so convenient to carry and use compared with paper ones. However, I may have to use a paper map when I go to visit a park as that is what they usually provide for visitors.
Part 2 & 3
Describe a situation (or a time) when you helped someone.
You should say:
What the situation was
Who the person was
How you helped the person
And explain how you felt after helping the person.
I remember one time when I was on the subway, there was a foreigner sitting beside me, and he was talking to someone else, I thought they were friends so I didn’t really pay attention. All of a sudden, he turned to me and said “Can you speak English?” I was a bit surprised and looked at both of them. It came out they didn’t know each other, and the foreigner was actually asking directions, but the girl beside him doesn’t speak English. So I helped to check his address on Baidu map, and found out that he took the wrong subway. I told him the correct line and direction, and wrote down the address he was about to go in Pinyin.
I was happy to help strangers. There was one time I saw a boy helping an old man carry the heavy luggage upstairs, and I was moved. This time I myself was able to help someone else as well. I felt great that I can be of some help to others. It is important for us to help each other and create a helping society.
①all of a sudden： 常用表达；突然，忽然
Eg：And all of a sudden, it came so crystal clear to me who this guy was.
②be about to: 词组；即将，正打算
Eg：It is a telling sign that specialty coffee may be about to go mainstream.
Eg：Please carry the desk upstairs.
④ moved: 动词，形容词；感动
Eg：And we have an update this morning to a report that moved many of our listeners.
1. In your view, should children be taught to help others?
Yes, I think so. Children can learn a lot of things by helping others. They can learn to be less selfish and more willing to share with others. If children can learn to be friendly and helpful, in return, he or she may be treated nicely by others as well. It will help them become a popular person.
Eg：Judging by his actions, he is rather selfish.
Eg：Jay Carney was willing to discuss the programme this week, mainly because NBC News published the paper.
2. Do you think people are less willing to help others these days, compared to the past? (Why?/Why not?)
It is sad to say yes. Nowadays we are afraid to help others, because we are not sure if the person is really in need. Some people may pretend that they are in trouble, when you help them, they’ll blame you for causing the trouble and sometimes you have to pay for a ridiculous amount of money, either compensation or medical fee. So nowadays people are getting more and more indifferent.
Eg：We hope that a representative will soon be appointed to come here for the discussion on the compensation.
Eg：This is no surprise given that investors are largely indifferent to pre-IPO compensation practices.
3. Do people today trust others as much as they used to in the past?
I think people nowadays trust others less than before. In the past, people who lived in the same community knew each other and helped each other, and they were friendly to strangers as well. However nowadays, we don’t really know who our neighbors are and seldom talk to them. And we hesitate to help strangers because we are afraid of being cheated.
Eg：The community is densely populated.
Eg：However, if our office can be of further assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us.