托福阅读解题技巧之词汇题

作者:小站托福 来源:托福阅读解题技巧之词汇题 2018-02-07 15:00

托福阅读考试有哪些题型?每一种题型应该如何解答呢?这些可能都是大家在托福备考的过程当中需要掌握的,今天这里小编就为大家带来了托福阅读词汇题的解题方法,希望对大家托福提分有帮助。

词汇题就是从具体的语境中理解词汇。鉴于英语单词的一词多义,所以准确理解某一个单词的意思需要依据语境。这里的语境就是我们所要阅读的文章的上下文。一般来说通过上下文推断或者猜测词意,上下文中可以利用的信息为,例句,对比词,同义词,反义词或者其他段落的解释等。此外,文章中一些特定搭配关系也可以帮助我们找到正确的答案。IBT的词汇题考的都是近义词,题目常见的问法如下:The word (or phrase) X is closest in meaning to ……, the word (or phrase) x could be best replaced by X。做这类题目,判断所考察词汇在原句中与其周围词汇的关系是关键,此外还要注意所考察词汇的词性。下面我们来看看常见的五种可以帮助我们迅速找到词汇题答案的特殊关系。

一、五类常见的词汇关系:

1. 直接反义关系—该词前或后出现的内容提示我们是反义关系。 表示相反概念的词语如下rather than,instead,unlike,contrast,on the contrary.

例如:

The main conflict in the novel is between a mother who places a high value on hard

work and honor and a son who repudiates his mother’s values instead preferring the easier path to fortune and celebrity

The word repudiates in the passage in closest in meaning to __

A) refuses to accept B) lives up to C) tries to understand D) makes the best of

假如repudiates我们不认识,从后面的小词 instead 这个词判定儿子和***价值观念是相反的,由此信息看四个选项,你会发现只有A选项带有否定的意味

2.并列关系:并列关系词如下: and,not only ..but also,as…as,and,both … and,either… or neither… nor

例如:

She embarked on her career by working as a newspaper reporter in Wisconsin and soon began writing novels.

The phrase embarked on in this sentence is closest in meaning to

A) took a trip to B) started out on C) improved upon D) had a opinion about

回到原文看embarked on周围的词语和它在这个句子中的作用。在这句中关健词 and 其后出现soon began告诉我们前后方向是一致的,前面也必然和began有关,所以本题目的正解是B。

3.解释关系:后面的句子或短词,单词来解释前面的词。常见的标志词:Contribute to,be responsible for,account for,since ,therefore ,for,because,in which等

例如:

His big break came with the novel So big(1924) ,which was awarded the Pulitzer in literature.

The word break in this sentence could best be replaced by ___

A) Rupture B) revelation C) opportunity D) rest

which was awarded the Pulitzer in Literature告诉我们一定考查的是正态度,所以答案不可能是A) D),所以应该选 C) Opportunity 是一种有利的状态或合适的时机。

4. 动宾关系:看看宾语能否受动词支配,或从动词短语搭配去判定.

例如:

The oxidation of exhaust gases is one of primary sources of the world’s pollutions. The brown haze that is poised over some of the world’s largest cities is properly called photochemical smog.

The word poised in this sentence is closest in meaning to__

A) interacting B) sitting C) blowing D) poisoning

首先从搭配关系上可以排除 interacting ,interact with 然后可以从上下文关系排除 blowing over 因为吹走了就是不会有smog.而poison考试中及物才有pollute的含义,不及物只有一种含义表示投毒。

5. 形容词修饰名词关系:

例如:

When the gas reaches the air, it comes into contact with available oxygen from atmosphere and combines with the oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide (No2), which is a gas with a brownish hue.

The word hue in this sentence is closest in meaning to

A)color B)odor C)thickness D)smoke

对于本题你会发现有个小词brownish 呈褐色的,首先从形容词修饰名词关系可以直接排除B odor C thickness, 其次可以通过 a gas with brownish hue前面的 gas 排除 D smoke,用词重复。所以正确答案是A。

二、解决词汇题的三大技巧:

1、首先看是否认识, 如果在认识, 采用就近原则,在选项中找同义或近义词, 并代入原文检验;如果不认识,将4个选项代入原文, 看上下文是否合理。

2、分析词语在句子中的作用,了解词性,然后按照上面提供的5类关系方法找出正确答案。

3、看选项,如果选项的有2个答案都比较合适,根据词汇搭配的5类关系,选择在含义上与原词最合适的。

总之,根据原文章语境理解所要选择词汇的词性和其在句中的作用,然后根据5类词汇搭配关系来选择合适的选项是解决这类题目的基础,排除法是解决这类题的主要方法。

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