Directions: Read the following text and choose the most suitable heading from A-F for each
paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need.
What does the Olympic Motto mean?
Research on individual styles improves performance.
Research holds the key to success.
Personalized programs will help.
New equipment has made a difference.
Is there a limit to record-breaking?
A world record is every athlete’s dream, but the hard-won records of a few years ago are mostly just today’s qualifying times. Roger Bannister’s famous four-minute mile of 1956 has been beaten by nearly 15 seconds, while almost an hour and twenty minutes has been taken off the women’s marathon since. 1953. ‘Faster, higher, stronger’, is the Olympic motto, and today’s competitors continue to push back the boundaries of what the body can achieve. But one wonders if this can continue.
The last forty years have seen many important technological advances. For example, since the introduction of strong flexible, fiberglass poles, over a meter has been added to the pole vault record. There have also been important developments in the design of the running shoe. And while a shoe won’t actually make someone run faster, modern shoes do mean many more miles of comfortable, injury-free training.
Pushing back the limits now depends more on science, technology and medicine than anything else. Athletic technique, training programmes and diets are all being studied to find ways of taking a few more seconds off or adding a few more centimetres to that elusive world record. It seems that natural ability and hard work are no longer enough.
The research to find more efficient ways of moving goes on. Analysis of an athlete’s style is particularly useful for events like jumping and throwing. Studies show that long jumpers need to concentrate not on the speed of approach, as once thought, but on the angle their bodies make with the ground as they take off. However, the rules governing each sport limit advances achieved by new styles. For instance only one-footed takeoffs are allowed in the high jump.
In the future, it should be possible to develop a more individual approach to training programmes. Athletes will keep detailed diaries and collect data to help predict the point when training becomes overtraining, the cause of many injuries. If athletes feed all their information into a database, it may then be possible to predict patterns and to advise them individually when they should cut
Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
Culture shock is so named because of the effect it has on people when they enter a new culture. Experts have been interested in these effects and have agreed on five basic stages of culture shock. These stages are general and should only be used as a reference. Not every individual will go through each stage, and one stage may last longer than another for different individuals.
The hardest thing for most travelers to deal with is the emotional “roller coaster” they seem to be riding. One moment they feel very positive toward the new culture, and the next moment very negative. It seems common that international visitors and immigrants vacillate（犹豫不定）between loving and hating a new country. Feelings of separation and alienation can be intensified if they do not have a sense of fitting in or belonging.
Fatigue is another problem people face when entering a new culture. There can be a sense of greater need for sleep. This is due not only to physical tiredness, but also to mental fatigue. This mental fatigue comes from straining to comprehend the language, and coping with new situation.
The impact of culture shock can vary from person to person. There can be significant differences because some people may be better prepared to enter a new culture. Four factors which play into these are personality, language ability, length of stay, and the emotional support received.
It is logical to think that when people are deprived of heir familiar surroundings they will feel disoriented. One solution some have found is to bring a few small reminders of home. Pictures, wall hangings, favorite utensils, and keepsake are all good candidates to make things feel more familiar. Another helpful activity is to establish little routines that become familiar over time. Even better is fitting things that were part of the regular routine back in the home country into the routine established in the new culture. This will make people feel more at home.
(Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.)
81. According to the 1st paragraph, what have experts been interested in?
82. What are the two problems people face when entering a new culture?
83. Coping with new situations may result in________.
84. The author thinks the more effective way to solve “cultural shock” is________.