一、形容词的定义
形容词的判断方法
判断一个词是不是形容词,可以从其结构特点和句法特点两方面来确定.
(1)结构特点
以-able,-al,-ful, -ic,-ish,-less,-ous,-y等后缀结尾的词,一般是形容词,如:changeable(多变的),medical(医学上的),careful(仔细的),atomic(原子的),foolish(愚蠢的),careless(粗心的),delicious(美味的),healthy(健康的),rainy(多雨的)等.
(2)句法特点
大多数形容词都可以作定语;在be,look,seem等词之后作表语;可用very来修饰,有比较级和最高级形式.其中,在句中作定语或作表语是形容词最主要的特点.如:
Mary is very nice.玛丽很可爱.(表语) Mary is a nice girl.玛丽是个可爱的女孩.(定语)
He was asleep.他睡着了.(表语) She is a perfect teacher.她是位十全十美的老师.(定语)
二、形容词的用法
1.用作定语
Li Mei is a beautiful city girl. The new student comes from Japan..
2.用作表语
My father's car is very expensive. The English story is very interesting.
常见的后跟形容词作表语的动词:
①become, come, fall, get, go, grow, make, turn(表示"变成某种状态")
②continue, hold, keep, lie, remain, stay(表示"保持某种状态")
③appear, feel, look, smell, sound, taste, know(表示"感觉")
例如:
He turned red when he heard the news.
It's going to stay cold for some time. The beer tastes very delicious.
3.用作宾语补足语
Don't keep the door open. His success made him happy.
4."the+形容词",表示一类人或事物,相当于名词,用作主语及宾语
The old often think of old things. The new always take the place of the old.
5.有时也可用作状语或补语
Please speak loud and clear. These soldiers spent three days in the cold weather, cold and hungry.
6.少数形容词只能作表语,不能作定语.
这些形容词包括 ill,asleep,awake,alone,alive,well,worth,glad,unable,afraid等.例如:
(正)Don't be afraid. (误) Mr Li is an afraid man.
(正)The old man was ill yesterday. (误)This is an ill person.
(正)This place is worth visiting. (误)That is a worth book.
7.少数形容词只能作定语,不能作表语.
这些形容词包括 little, live(活着的),elder, eldest 等.例如:
(正)My elder brother is a doctor. (误)My brother is elder than I.
(正)This is a little house. (误)The house is little.
(正)Do you want live fish or dead one (误)The old monkey is still live.
三、形容词的位置
1.形容词一般放在名词前作定语
单个形容词修饰名词时,一般要放在名词的前面.它们的前面常常带有冠词,形容词性物主代词,指示代词,数词等.例如:
a red flower一朵红花 this interesting story这个有趣的故事
six blind men 六个盲人 my own house我自己的房子
(1)当形容词所修饰的词是由some, any, every, no等构成的不定代词时,形容词必须置于所修饰的词之后.例如:
She has something new to tell me. I have nothing important to do today.
Do you know anybody else here? 这儿你还有认识的人吗
(2)形容词后面有介词短语或不定式短语时,形容词必须置于名词之后.例如:
It is a problem difficult to work out. Edison is a student difficult to teach.
This is a kind of flowers easy to grow. 这是一种易栽的花.
(3)在以下特殊用法中,形容词置于所修饰的名词之后.例如:
All people, young or old, should be strict with themselves.
We are building a new school, modern and super.
All countries, rich and poor, should help one another. 所有的国家,无论穷富,都应该互相帮助.
(4)有少数形容词,如enough和possible,既可置于所修饰的名词之前,也可置于所修饰的名词之后.例如:
Do you have enough time(time enough)to prepare 你有足够的时间做准备吗
Maybe it will be a possible chance(chance possible)for you.或许它将成为你的一次可能的机遇.
(5)有些形容词,置于名词之前与之后,含义不尽相同.例如:
the writer present 出席的作家
the present writer 当代的作家
2.两个以上的形容词修饰同一个名词时的排列顺序
限定词→一般描绘性形容词→表示大小,长短,高低的形容词→表示形状的形容词→表示年龄,新旧的形容词→表示色彩的形容词→表示国籍,地区,出处的形容词→表示物质,材料的形容词→表示用途,类别的形容词→名词中心词.例如:
an exciting international football match一场令人激动的国际足球赛
a new red sports shirt一件新的红色运动衫
a light black plastic umbrella一把轻的黑塑料伞
a small old brown wooden house 一座小的旧的棕色的木头房子
巧记形容词的排列顺序
不少学生对如何排列形容词的顺序颇感困惑.在此,我们向同学们介绍一个简单的记忆方法.即请你记住"限观形龄色国材"这几个字,这似乎有点不大好记,那就请你记住"县官行令谢国材"吧.其含义分别是:
"县"(限)代表限定词,包括冠词,指示代词,形容词性物主代词,名词所有格,数词等.
"官"(观)代表表示观点的描绘性形容词,如:fine,beautiful,interesting等.
"行"(形)代表表示大小,长短,高低及形状的形容词,如:small,tall,high,little,round等.
"令"(龄)代表表示年龄,新旧的形容词,如:old,young等.
"谢"("色"的近似音)代表表示颜色的形容词,如:white,black,yellow等.
"国"代表表示国籍,地区,出处的形容词(名词),如:English,American,mountain等.
"材"则代表形成中心名词的材料的形容词,如:stone,wooden,silk,plastic等.
多个形容词同时修饰一个名词时,就按上述顺序排列,然后加上中心名词.例如:
1.a fine old stone bridge一座古老漂亮的石桥
2.two big round new Chinese wooden tables 两张新的中国式的木制大圆桌
3.his large new black foreign car 他那辆新的大型黑色外国轿车
形容词练习题
1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys. 
A. little two other B. two little other  C. two other little  D. little other two
2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.
A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old
3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao?
  ---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside.
A. few last sunny  B. last few sunny  C. last sunny few  D. few sunny last
4)-- Are you feeling ____? 
 ---- Yes,I'm fine now.
A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better
5)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected. 
A. more  B. much more   C. much    D. more much
6)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. 
A. the happiest time  B. a more happier time 
C. much happiest time  D. a much happier time
7)The weather in China is different from____.
A. in America  B. one in America  C. America
D. that in America
8)After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before.
A. as twice many  B. as many twice  C. twice as many D. twice many as
9)John has three sisters, Mary is the ____ of the three.
A. most cleverest B. more clever C. cleverest D. cleverer
10). She told us ____ story that we all forget about the time.
A. such an interesting B. such interesting a
C. so an interesting D. a so interesting
11) The story sounds____.
A. to be true B. as true C. being true D. true
12) The pianos in the other shop will be ____, but____.
A. cheaper, not as better B. more cheap, not as better
C. cheaper, not as good D. more cheap, not as good
13).----How did you find your visit to the museum? ----I thoroughly enjoyed it. It was ____ than I expected.
A. far more interesting B. even much interesting
C. so more interesting D. a lot much interesting
14) ____ food you’ve cooked!
A. How a nice B. What a nice C. How nice D. What nice
15) These oranges taste____.
A. good B. well C. to be good D. to be well
16) The experiment was ____ easier than we expected.
A. more B. much more C. much D. more much
17) Canada is larger than ____ country in Asia.
A. any B. any other C. other D. another
18) Which is _____ country, Canada or Australia?
A. a large B. larger C. a larger D. the larger
19)----Are you feeling____?
----Yes, I am fine now.
A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better
20) John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes____.
A. open B. to be opened C. to open D. opening
21)----Mum, I think I’m ____ to get back to school.
----Not really, my dear. You’d better to stay at home for another day or two.
A. so well B. so good C. Well enough D. good enough
22) ----I f you don’t like the red coat, take the blue one.
----Ok, but do you have ____ size in blue? This one’s a bit tight for me.
A. a big B. a bigger C. the big D. the bigger
23) I t takes a long time to go there by train; it’s ____ by boat.
A. quick B. the quickest C. much quick D. quicker
24) If there were no examinations, we should have____ at school.
A. the happiest time B. a more happier time
C. much happiest time D. a much happier time
25)----Have you finished your report yet?
----No, I’ll finish in ____ ten minutes.
A. another B. other C. more D. less
26)----How was your recent visit to Qingdao?
----It was great. We visited some friends, and spent the ____days at the seaside.
A. few last sunny B. last few sunny
C. last sunny few D. few sunny last
30) ____, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together.
A. However late is he B. However he is late
C. However is he late D. However late he is
答案与解析
1.答案是C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的顺序可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。
2.答案A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+名词。
3.答案是B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照:限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词,如those + three + beautiful + large + square +old + brown + wood + table。
4.答案是B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的比较级为better.
5.答案是C. much可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较级,不需more,因此C为正确答案。
6.答案是D。
7.答案是D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C不能选。A没有名词,后句成分不全,排除。B和D中,B中的one常用来代替可数名词,而that可车以代替不可数或抽象名词,所以选D。
8.答案是C. 此句意为"这个厂1988能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为C.
9. 答案是C.比较范围在三者或三者以上应用最高级。
10。答案是A。在so(such)…that … 的句型中,so修饰形容词或副词,such修饰名词。
11.答案是D. sound是连系动词,后面应接形容词作表语。
12.答案是C。根据the other shop 的含义可判断第一空白处为比较级,第二空白处为同级比较:not as good = not as good as the one in this shop.
13. 答案是A。多音节形容词的比较级是在其前面加上more构成,而比较级的强调形式可在其前面加上far.
14. 答案是D. 要掌握由what和how引导的感叹句的句型:
what + a/an+形容词+单数可数名词
what+形容词+不可数名词/可数名词复数
how+形容词+ a/an+可数名词单数
15. 答案是A. taste是连系动词, good用作表语.
16. 答案是C. much用来修饰比较级easier.
17.答案是A. 要区分两种句型: than+ any+ other+单数名词(包括主语在内); than+ any+ 单数名词(不包括主语在内). 众所周知, 加拿大不属于亚洲,所以A为正确答案.
18. 答案是D. 一般来说,形容词比较级作表语时前面不加任何冠词. 此句可理解为Canada is the two countries.
19. 答案是B. 本题考查对修饰比较级的程度副词的掌握. any修饰比较级, 一般用于疑问句或否定句. quite 不能与比较级连用.
20. 答案是A. 本题考查对形容词作宾语补足语的掌握.当open作宾补时, 一般用它的形容词,不用它的现在分词形式.
21. 答案是C. 对话的内容是谈论身体情况,所以形容词应选用well. 另外, enough作副词修饰形容词时应放在形容词之后.
22. 答案是B. 根据a bit tight for me的提示,可推断答案应为比较级. 形容词的比较级修饰可数名词单数时,前面应加a/an.
23. 答案是D. 这是一个省略句, 全句的内容是: It’s quicker to go there by boat than by train.
24. 答案是D. have a good/happy/wonderful time是习惯用法. much修饰比较级.
25. 答案是A. more 与another 在表示 ‘再’, ‘又’ 时,用法不同, more放在数词后面,而another放在前面.
26. 答案是B. 本题考查对形容词排列顺序的掌握.
30. 答案是D.以 however 引导的状语从句,应把 however所修饰的形容词放在它的后面.同时, 主语谓语不颠倒.