this,that,tomorrow,yesterday,next, last, one 接年、月、季、星期、周,介词省略已习惯

例:一天 one day (不说 on one day)
one summer 在一个夏天
one year 一年
last night 昨天夜里
last Friday 上个星期五
last month 上月
last year 去年
yesterday afternoon 昨天下午
tomorrow afternoon 明天下午
tomorrow evening 明天晚上
next month 下个月
next week 下周
next year 明年
next Saturday 下星期六
this morning 今天早晨
this year 今年
this Tuesday 本星期二
this Autumn 今年秋天
that morning 那天早上
that evening 那天晚上

无论前面介词 in、on 还是 at,通通可省略,不能说 at last night, on last Friday, in last month, in this year 这些都是不对的,须去掉介词。

over, under 正上下,above, below 则不然,若与数量词连用,混合使用亦无关。

例:There is a picture over the window. 窗户上面有一幅画。(正上方)
The plane flew above the city. 飞机飞过城市上空。(高于城市并非正上方)
A lamp was hanging over the table. 一盏灯是在方桌上方。(正上方)
The moon was now above the trees in the east. 这时月亮已经在东边树林的上方。(非正上方)
Don't stand above the masses. 勿高踞于群众之上。(比喻一一非正上方)
The mountain is 700 feet above sea level. 这座山海拔700米。(非正上方)
There is a small building below the hill. 山下有座小楼房。(非正下方)
There is a submarine under the water. 水下有艘潜水艇。(正下方)
Water was found ten feet below the surface. 在地面下10英尺处找到了水。(非正下方)
The peasants are cooling themselves under the trees. 农民们正在树下乘凉。(正下方)

over under 正上下,低高 below 与 above

The temperature in the room is below (or under) 30℃.室温是摄氏30度以下。(数量词两者皆可)
Do you have anything in the way of computers below (under) $10000?你们有哪些价格低于10000美元的计算机?(数量词两者皆可〕

beyond 超出、无、不能

例:It's quite beyond me (It is more than I can understand). 这我完全不懂。
Don't stay out beyond 10 o'clock. 不要在外呆到10点以后还不回家。
But the gratitude from the bottom of my heart to the students and my old colleagues, has gone beyond my control. 发自肺腑的对学生们和我的老同事们的感激之心使我毫不紧张,毫不拘束;
Your work is beyond all praise, so good that it can't be praised enough.你的成绩是赞扬不尽的。
That is going beyond a joke, passes the limits of what is reasonable as a joke.那样开玩笑太过火了。
They were touched beyond words. 他们被感动得无法形容。(无)
To do this was quite beyond all doubts. 办这事我无能为力。(超出)
This is inevitable and beyond all doubts. 这是必然的,毫无疑义的。(无)
另外, Beyond two cottages stood his house.句子中的 beyond 是“那边”的意思。

against 靠着,对与反

例: In front of the wardrobe there are two upholstered armchairs arranged against the south wall near the door. 立柜前面是两把沙发椅,靠着南城门附近。(靠着)
She leaned wearily against the railings. 她疲惫地靠着栏杆站着。(靠着)
A new president was elected by a majority of 274 votes against 110.新总统以274票对110票的多数当选。 (对……)

besides, except 分内外,among 之内 along 沿

例:The design has many other advantages besides lower cost.除费用低外,该设计还有许多其他优点。(优点包括在内)
He had no time to prepare his lecture, besides which he was unwell.他没有时间准备讲稿,而且他的身体也不大舒适。
Every one of us, except her, went to see the exhibition. 除她外,我们都去参观了展览会。
He gets up early every day except Sunday. 除星期日外他每天早起。
Nobody was late except me. 除我以外,没人迟到。

同类比较 except,加 for 异类记心间。

He's composition is good, except for some spelling mistakes.他的这篇作文写得很好,只是有几处拼写错误。(非同类比较用 except for)
She was all alone in the world except for an old aunt. 除了有一个老姑妈,她别无亲人。
Anna felt disappointed when she found out they had gone swimming without her. (without = except) 当安娜发现除她外,他们都去游泳了,她感到很失望。
Lion Head Hill is not worth seeing except for its old temples.除了那些古寺以外,狮头山没什么可看的。
Among other things, we are interested in drawing.我们对图画和别的一些东西很感兴趣。(among 之内即包括在内)

原状 because of, owing to, due to 表语形容词

例:Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of schedule.由于我们的共同努力,任务提前完成了。
注:Owing to 和 because of 都做原因状语,而 due to 只能做表语形容词。所以此句。owing to 的介词短语做原因状语。

All our achievements are due to the correct leadership of our Party.我们的一切成绩都归功于党。(due to 做表语形容词)

Under 后接修、建中,of,from 物化分

例:The road is under repair now.这条路正在修建中。
The new railway is still under construction. 新铁路尚在修筑中。(不能用 in)
under discussion 在讨论中(不能用 in) under considerate 在考虑中(不能用 in)
The desk is made of wood. 桌子是木头做的。(物理变化用 of)
The wine is made from grape. 这种酒是用葡萄酿造的。(化学变化用 from)
The bridge is made of steel. 这座桥是钢制的。(物理变化)
Steel is made from iron. 钢是由铁炼成的。(化学变化)

before, after 表一点,ago, later 表示一段

即  before, after 常表示一个点的时间状语,而 ago,later 常表示一段的时间状语。
例如:前天 the day before yesterday; 前年 the year before last; 大上星期 the week before last 等等都表示点状语的。
要想准确无误地使用好 before 和 ago, after 和 later 比较困难,但要是以“点”和“段”来区别就容易得多。

例:晚饭前 before supper
解放前 before liberation
1970 年前 before 1970
文革前 before cultural revolution
国庆前 before National Day
入大学前 before coming to college

ago 表示一段时间。
例:一分钟前 a minute ago
半小时前 half an hour ago
两天前 two days ago
一星期前 a week ago
五年前 five years ago

因为 a minute, half an hour, two days, a week, five years 等都表示一段时间,所以用 ago。以及 ten days later 等皆如此。

before 可接完成时,ago 过去级有限

这时的 before 是连词(也可做介词)

例:We had scarcely left our school before it began to rain.我们刚离开学校,天就下雨了。(完成时)
I had studied French for four months before I came here.我来这儿以前就已学了四个月法语了。(before 接完成时)
He fell ill three days ago.他病了三天了。(ago 则只能接动词过去式,同时注意瞬间动词的问题。)
He left two months ago. 两个月前他离开了。(同上)
I met her a few minutes ago. 我在几分钟前碰到他了。(同上)

Since 以来 during 间,since 时态多变换与之相比 beside, 除了 last but one。

即 beside 的一般用法是“在……旁边”, 但还有“和……相比”等特殊用法。

例:I felt so weak in spoken English beside them. 和他们相比,我感到我的口语太差。
Beside work and study, all else was trivial. 同工作和学习比起来,其他一切都是小事。

除了 last but one,即 but 多指“除了”的意思,也有“倒数第几”的意思。last but one 即不是最后一个。

例:I haven't told anybody but one. 除了我爱人,我谁也没告诉。(除了)
Who but a fool would study foreign language well if he is a hard working one.如果他勤奋好学的话,除了傻瓜谁都能学好外语。(除了)

Look at the last page but one. 请看倒数第2页。
He was the last but three in maths examination this time. 他这次数学考试成绩倒数第四。
They live in the next house but one. 他们住在隔壁过去一家。