In study after study, four traits are ____1____ of happy people. First, happy people, especially in ____2____ Western cultures, like themselves. On self-esteem tests, they agree with statements such as “I’m a lot of fun to be with” and “I have good ideas”. ____3____ we might expect of people who are usually happy, they report that they have positive self-esteem. Indeed, they usually have a good ____4____ of themselves: They believe themselves to be more ethical, more intelligent, ____5____ prejudiced, better able to get along with others, and healthier than the ____6____ person.
Second, happy people typically feel ____7____ control. Feeling empowered rather than helpless, they also do better in school, ____8____ more at work, and cope better with stress.
____9____ control over one’s life—a phenomenon studied ____10____ prisoners, nursing-home patients, etc. —people ____11____ lower morale (士气) and worse health. Severe poverty is depressing if it destroys people’s ____12____ of control over their life.
Third, happy people are usually optimistic. One could reason that pessimists, ____13____low expectations are so often ____14____, would constantly be surprised by joy. “Blessed is ____15____ who expects nothing, for he shall never be disappointed,” wrote poet Alexander Pope in a 1727 letter. ____ 16____ , positive-thinking optimists, those who agree that “when I ____17____ something new, I expect to succeed” tend to be more successful, healthier, and happier.
Fourth, happy people are extroverted. ____18____ we might expect that introverts live more happily in the peacefulness of their less-stressed contemplative (思考的) lives, extroverts are happier--whetherliving and working ____19____ or with others and whether living in ____20____ or metropolitan areas.
1. A. special B. identical C. typical D. symbolic
2. A. individual B. individualized C. individualistic D. individualism
3. A. Though B. As C. Since D. While
4. A. thinking B. idea C. evaluation D. opinion
5. A. more B. greater C. less D. worse
6. A. ordinary B. normal C. rest D. average
7. A. private B. individual C. personal D. subjective
8. A. succeed B. acquire C. award D. achieve
9. A. Depriving B. Depriving of C. Deprived D. Deprived of
10. A. in B. with C. on D. at
11. A. suffer B. suffering C. suffered D. being suffered
12. A. feeling B. sense C. emotion D. act
13. A. whom B. whose C. what D. that
14. A. extended B. surmounted C. exceeded D. transcended
15. A. he B. his C. him D. one
16. A. Nevertheless B. Moreover C. More or less D. Insofar
17. A. accomplish B. undertake C. encounter D. engage
18. A. Because B. Whenever C. Although D. Even if
19. A. singly B. alone C. lonely D. solely
20. A. county B. urban C. rural D. suburban