What is the nature of the scientifi c attitude, the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics, chemistry, geology, engineering, medical or any other science? We all know that science plays an important role in the societies in which we live. Many people believe, however, that our progress depends on two different aspects of science. The fi rst of these is the application of the machines and products that scientists and technologists develop. New drugs, faster and safer means of transport, new systems of applied knowledge are some examples of this aspect of science.
The second aspect is the application of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work. What are these special methods of thinking and acting? First of all, it seems that a successful scientist is full of curiosity — he wants to fi nd out how and why the universe works. He usually directs his attention towards problems which he notices have no satisfactory explanation, and his curiosity makes him look for underlying relationships even if the data available seem to be unconnected. Moreover, he thinks he can improve the existing conditions, whether of pure or applied knowledge, and enjoys trying to solve the problems which this involves.
He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective and applies persistent and logical thought to the observations he makes. He utilizes the facts he observes to the full extent. For example, trained observers obtain a very large amount of information about a star mainly from the accurate analysis of the simple lines that appear in a spectrum.
He is skeptical — he does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available — and therefore rejects authority as the sole basis for truth.
Furthermore, he is not only critical of the work of others, but also of his own. Since he knows that man is the least reliable of scientifi c instruments and that a number of factors tend to disturb objective investigation.
Lastly, he is highly imaginative since he often has to look for relationships in data, which are not only complex but also frequently incomplete. Furthermore, he needs imagination if he wants to make hypotheses of how processes work and how events take place.
These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts.
81. Many people believe that science helps society to progress through .
A. applied knowledge B. more than one aspect
C. technology only D. the use of machines
82. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about curiosity?
A. It gives the scientist confi dence and pleasure in work.
B. It gives rise to interest in problem that are unexplained.
C. It leads to efforts to investigate potential connections.
D. It encourages the scientists to look for new ways of acting.
83. According to the passage, a successful scientist would not .
A. easily believe in unchecked statements
B. easily criticize others’ research work
C. always use his imagination in work
D. always use evidence from observation
84. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. Application of technology.
B. Progress in modern society.
C. Scientists’ way of thinking and acting.
D. How to become a successful scientist.
85. What is the author’s attitude towards the topic?
A. Critical. B. Objective. C. Biased. D. Unclear.
81. B。细节类。第一段第四行：“Many people believe, however, that our progress depends on two different aspects of science.”，社会的进步依靠于科学的两个不同方面。所以选B。
83. A。细节类。第五段“He is skeptical — he does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available.”，科学家常常对于没有建立在充分证据上的论断持怀疑态度。
84. C。主旨类。文章第三段“What are these special methods of thinking and acting?”是全文的主题句。文章解释了科学家的思考和行为方式。