作者：素衣 2016-07-24 19:52
What Is a Dream?【什么是梦】
For centuries, people have wondered about the strange things that they dream about. Some psychologists say that this nighttime activity of the mind has no special meaning. Others, however, think that dreams are an important part of our lives. In fact, many experts believe that dreams can tell us about a person's mind and emotions.
Before modern times, many people thought that dreams contained messages from God.(46)___
The Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud', was probably the first person to study dreams scientifically. In his famous book, The interpretation of Dreams (1900) ,Freud wrote that dreams are an expressions of a person's wishes. He believed that dreams allow people to express the feelings, thoughts, and fears that they are afraid to express in real life.
The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung2 was once a student of Freud's. Jung, however, had a different idea about dreams. Jung believed that the purpose of a dream was to communicate a message to the dreamer. (47)___ For example, people who dream about falling may learn that they have too high an opinion of themselves. On the other hand, people who dream about being heroes may learn that they think too little of themselves.
Modern-day psychologists continue to develop theories about dreams. For example, psychologist William Domhoff from the University of California, Santa Cruz, believes that dreams are tightly linked to a person's daily life, thoughts, and behavior. (48)___
Domhoff believes that there is a connection between dreams and age. His research shows that children do not dream as much as adults. According to Domhoff, dreaming is a mental skill that needs time to develop.
He has also found a link between dreams and gender. His studies show that the dreams of men and women are different. (49)___This is not true of women's dreams.-3 Domhoff found this gender difference in the dreams of people from 11 cultures around the world, including both modern and traditional ones.
Can dreams help us understand ourselves Psychologists continue to try to answer this question in different ways. (50)___The dream' may have meaning, but it does not mean that some terrible event will actually take place. It's important to remember that the world of dreams is not the real world.
A. A criminal, for example, might dream about crime.
B. He thought people could learn more about themselves by thinking about their dreams.
C. However, one thing they agree on this: If you dream that something terrible is going to occur, you shouldn't panic.
D. For example, the people in men's dreams are often other men, and the dreams often involve fighting.
E. It was only in the twentieth century that people started to study dreams in a scientific way.
F. Men and women dream about different things.
Culture differences 【文化差异】
People from different cultures sometimes do things that make each other uncomfortable, sometimes without realizing it. Most Americans ___A__1___ out of the country and have very __B___2____ experience with foreigners. But they are usually spontaneous, friendly and open, and enjoy __C__3____ new people, having guests and bringing people together formally or informally. They tend to use first names __D__4____ most situations and speak freely about themselves. So if your American hosts do something that ___A__5___ you uncomfortable, try to let them know how you feel. Most people will _C__6___ your honesty and try not to make you uncomfortable again. And you’ll all __C___7______ something about another culture!
Many travelers find _____8__B___ easier to meet people in the U.S. than in other countries. They may just come up and introduce themselves or even invite you over ____9__D_ they really know you. Sometimes Americans are said to be _C___10___. Perhaps it seems so, but they are probably just __A__11____ a good time. Just like anywhere else, it takes time to become real friends __A__12____ people in the U.S..
If and when you ___D__13____ American friends, they will probably _D___14____ introducing you to their friends and family, and if they seem proud ___A__15____ you, it’s probably because they are. Relax and enjoy it!
1. A) have never been B) have been never C) has never been D) has been never
2. A) a little B) little C) much D) a great deal
3. A) meet B) to meet C) meeting D) to have met
4. A) on B) among C) within D) in
5. A) makes B) make C) made D) making
6. A) praise B) honor C) appreciate D) confirm
7. A) pick B) select C) learn D) study
8. A) this B) it C) them D) /
9. A) when B) if C) after D) before
10. A) superficially friend B) superficial friend C) superficially friendly D) superficial friendly
11. A) having B) taking C) making D) killing
12. A) with B) among C) to D) in
13. A) get along with B) get rid of C) stay away from D) stay with
14. A) hate B) forbid C) avoid D) enjoy
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