不定式
  1、动词不定式形式:(to)+do具有名词、形容词、副词的特征;否定式:not+(to) do
  2、不定式的句法功能:
  (1)作主语:
  To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard.
  To lose your heart means failure.
  动词不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,真正的主语不定式置于句后,例如上面两句可用如下形式:
  It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes.
  It means failure to lose your heart.
  常用句式有:
  1、It+be+名词+to do。
  2、It takes sb.+some time+to do。
  3、It+be+形容词+of sb +to do。
  4、It+be+形容词+for sb.+to do。
  常用careless,,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise,等表示赞扬或批评的形容词,不定式前的sb.可作其逻辑主语。
  (2)作表语:
  Her job is to clean the hall.
  He appears to have caught a cold.
  (3)作宾语:
  常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如:
  Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如: I have no choice but to stay here.He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike.
  动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English.
 (4)作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite.
  此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn"t go to the cinema.有些动词如make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have等与不带有to的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式要加to, 如: I saw him cross the road. /He was seen to cross the road.
(5)作定语:
  动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系:
  ①动宾关系:
  I have a meeting to attend.注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如:He found a good house to live in.The child has nothing to worry about.
  如果不定式修饰time, place, way,可以省略介词:He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem.
  如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式:Have you got anything to send? Have you got anything to be sent?
  ②说明所修饰名词的内容:
  We have made a plan to finish the work.
  ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语:
  He is the first to get here.
  3、难点解析
  (1)接不定式或动名词在意思上有区别的动词:
  fmean to do想要(做某事)propose to do打算(做某事)
  mean doing意味(做某事)propose doing建议(做某事)
  forget to do忘记(要做的事)remr to do记得(要做某事)
  forget doing忘记(已做的事)remr doing记得(已做过的事)
  regret to do(对将要做的事)遗憾go on to do继而(做另一件事)
  regret doing(对已做过的事)后悔go on doing继续(做原来的事)
  fstop to do停下来去做另一件事
  stop doing停止正在做的事
(2)下列动词短语中的to是介词,后面应接动名词或名词:
  resort to,react to,contribute to,look forward to,be accustomed to,be committed to.be exposed to,be subjected to,be devoted to,be dedicated to,be opposed to,be reconciled to,be contrary to