【TED】是一个会议的名称,它是英文technology,entertainment, design三个单词的首字母缩写。它是社会各界精英交流的盛会,这里有当代最杰出的思想家,这里有当代最优秀的科学家,这里有迸发着最闪耀的思想火花,这里孕育着最光辉的梦想。
James Geary
Aphorism enthusiast and author James Geary waxes on a fascinating fixture of human language: the metaphor. Friend of scribes from Aristotle to Elvis, metaphor can subtly influence the decisions we make, Geary says.


Bouba/Kiki test
So, how do we make and understand metaphors? This might look familiar. The first step is pattern recognition. Look at this image. What do you see? Three wayward Pac-Men, and three pointy brackets are actually present. What we see, however, are two overlapping triangles. Metaphor is not just the detection of patterns; it is the creation of patterns. Second step, conceptual synesthesia. Now, synesthesia is the experience of a stimulus in once sense organ in another sense organ as well, such as colored hearing. People with colored hearing actually see colors when they hear the sounds of words or letters. We all have synesthetic abilities. This is the Bouba/Kiki test. What you have to do is identify which of these shapes is called Bouba, and which is called Kiki. If you are like 98% of other people, you will identify the round, amoeboid shape as Bouba, and the sharp, spiky one as Kiki.
那我们如何运用和理解暗喻呢?大家对此并不陌生。第一步就是模式识别。请看这张图。你看到了什么?其实只有三个在外沿的吃豆人(Pac Man),和三个尖角括号而已。但我们实际看到的是两个重叠的三角形。暗喻不仅仅是模式辨识,也是模式创造。 第二步,概念联觉。联觉是指一种感官受到的刺激引起另一种感官的感受,例如色彩听觉。有色彩听觉的人就会在听到词语的声音时将会看到色彩。我们都拥有联觉的能力。这是Bouba/Kiki测试。请你说出哪个形状叫Bouba,哪个叫Kiki。 如果你象其余百分之九十八的人一样,你会把这个圆圆的,变形虫形状的叫做Bouba,把尖尖的,刺猬状的叫做Kiki。