Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage:

Should a leader strive to be loved or feared?This question,famously posed by Machiavelli,lies at the heart of Joseph Nye's new book.Mr.Nye,a former dean of the Kennedy School of Govemment at Harvard and one-time chairman of America's National Intelligence Council,is best known for promoting the idea of "soft power",based on persuasion and influence,as a counterpoint to "hard power",based on coercion(强迫) and force.

Having analyzed the use of soft and hard power in politics and diplomacy in his previous books,Mr.Nye has now turned his attention to the relationship between power and leadership,in both the political and business spheres.Machiavelli,he notes,concluded that "one ought to be both feared and loved,but as it is difficult for the two to go together,it is much safer to be feared than loved."In short,hard power is preferable to soft power.But modem leadership theorists have come to the opposite conclusion.

The context of leadership is changing,the observe,and the historical emphasis on hard power is becoming outdated.In modem companies and democracies,power is increasingly diffused and traditional hierarchies(等级制) are being undermined,making soft power ever more important.But that does not mean coercion should now take a back seat to persuasion.Mr.Nye argues.Instead,he advocates a synthesis of these two views.The conclusion of The Powers to Lead ,his survey of the theory of leadership,is that a combination of hard and soft power,which he calls”smart power”,is the best approach.

The dominant theoretical model of leadership at the moment is ,apparently,the “transformational leadership pattern”.Anone allergic(反感) to management term will already be running for the exit,but Mr,Nye has performed a valuable service in rounding up and summarizing the various academic studies and theories of leadcriship into a single,slim volume.He examines different approaches to leadership,the morality of leadership and how the wider context can determine the effcctiveness of a particular leader.There are plcnty of anccdotes and examples,both historical and contemporary,political and corporate.

Alsa,leadership is a slippery subject,and as he depicts various theories,even Mr.Nye never quite nails the jelly to the wall.He is at his most interesting when discussing the moral aspects of leadershipin particular,the question of whether it is sometimes necessary for good leaders? to lie -and he provides a helpful 12-point summary of his conclusions.A recuming theme is that as circumstances change,different sorts of leadcrs are required;a leader who thrives in one environment may struggle in another,and vice versa.Ultimately that is just a fancy way of saying that leadcrship offers no casy answers.

51.From the first two paragraphs we may learn than Mr.Machiavelli's idea of hard power is ______.

accepted by Joseph Nye

influential till nowadays

on sound theories

ry to that of modem leadership theorists

52.Which of the following makes soft power more important today according to Mr.Nye?

A.Coercion is widespread.

B.Morality is devalued.

C.Power is no longer concentrated.

D.Traditional hierarchies are strengthened

53.In his book the Powers to lead,Mr.Nye has exmined all the following aspects of leadership EXCEPT_____.





54.Mr.Nye's book is particularly valuable in that it _____.

little use of management terms

izes various studies concisely

as an exit for leadership researchers

a model for contemporary corporate leaders

55.According to the author,the most interesting part of Mr.Nye's book lies in his _____.

of changeable leadership

tion of good leadership

y of leadership history

sion of moral leadership