One day in winter
My hometown located in a very habitable valley where the people live in a harmonious atmosphere.
I still remember last winter, when I woke up in the morning, it had already stopped snowing.Looking outside of the window, the shiny white snow on our lawn had been cleaned by my father. I closed the book thatI had borrowed from local library and went downstairs for breakfast, which had been prepared well on the kitchen table. Then my little brother came to tell me thathe had finished all his homework and he had a very nice dream the night before. We talked about his dream and the stories of my book. During the breakfast, one of my best friends came to visit my family. She said that she had an unforgettable experience abroad.She went to Australia last year. Before that she had prepared for the examination of University of Sydney for half a year. During her study, she had learned the culture and professional knowledge in her field. Also, shehad gone to New Zealand for sightseeing where she understood the Maori people’s life. By the end of last fall she had finished reading a novel about Maori. When she was in Australia, together with her friends and classmateshad planned todonate some money for the poor and the weak in China. So after her return, she went to Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to help the people in need. In total, 100 people had been helped by her teamby the end of this October. I was so proud of her that we had talked all day long. It was really a happy day.
这篇短文呢，讲到的是过去完成时的结构用法。过去完成时（past perfect tense）强调的是过去某一动作或者状态发生在在另一动作前或者过去某个时间，或指在过去某个时间段已经发生的事情，其实就是过去的过去。它的构成如下：
被动式：had been done。
例如文中“it had already stopped snowing.”这句话分析出来就是“雪已经停了”。但是值得注意的是“雪停了”这个动作是发生在“我”醒来之前，所以要用到过去完成时“had stopped。
再举一个被动式的例子“the shiny white snow on our lawn had been cleaned by my father.”即“草坪上的雪已经被爸爸清扫干净了。”因为通篇都是在讲过去的事情，而爸爸是在过去之前就把雪清扫干净了。这“过去的过去”就形成了。
再来分析一个过去完成时的时间状语,文中“by the end of last fall she had finished reading a novel about Maori”那么这里的格式就是“by the time sb.+过去分词”。今天的话题就这样吧，毕竟人不能一口吃一个大胖子，咱们循序渐进，文中加了颜色的部分都是过去完成时的用法，同学们可以依照上面所讲的内容区一一对应，自己分析和揣摩，最后祝福大家冬天快乐！