时态作为每年高考的必考语法点,在中学语法教学中地位很突出,但由于英汉两种语言的差异,对时态中很多的误区需要搞清楚。下面就在学习中常遇到的几个典型错误进行例析。 典型错误一: 误认为过去时态不与for years 等连用。
1.He _____ football regularly for many years when he was young.
A. was playing B. played C. has played D. had played
简析:认为for three years 该类短语只和完成时态搭配。该类题目出错很高,与学生学习时态的定式思维及缺乏语境有关。表示某一动作是发生在过去,通常是讲述过去的某一经历时,此时要用过去时态,不可用现在完成时态或过去完成时态。
典型错误二: 过去完成时态、现在完成时分不清。
1.I got caught in the rain and my suit____.
A.has ruined B. had ruined C. has been ruined D. had been ruined
简析: 要把握住好时间点。过去完成时表示某一动作或状态在过去某一时间点前已发生或存在,即“过去的过去”;而现在完成时则是指涉及到目前这一时间点。做题时不注意去找时间点作参照就容易误选。第1题:淋雨发生在过去,但讲话者说的是现在衣服淋得不成样子。用过去完成时态则表示在淋雨前就不成样子,显然不对。
3.---Has your father returned from Africa yet ?
--- Yes, but he _______here for only three days before his company sent him to Australia . A. was B. has been C. will be D. would be
典型错误三: 混淆现在(过去)完成时态与现在(过去)完成进行时的用法。
1.---I’m sure Andrew will win the first prize in the final .
--- I think so. He _______ for it for months.
A.is preparing B. was preparing C. had been preparing D. has been preparing
简析:通常在完成进行时态中的动词是延续动词。但有些动词完成进行时态与完成时态有时区别并不明显。
典型错误四:混淆将来时态多种表达法不同内涵。
1.--- Did you tell Julia about the result ?
--- Oh, no , I forgot. I ____ her now.
A.will be calling B. will call C. call D. am to call
简析:将来时态的表达方式很多,其内涵也各不相同。 1. will和be going to 都可以表示表示将来,但will 不是事先考虑的意图,可表示临时突然决定要去要做某事;而be going to 则是实现考虑好的。如第1题。
时态小测试:
1. Sales of CDs have greatly increased since the early 1990s, when people ________ to enjoy the advantages of this new technology.
A. begin B. began
C. have begun D. had begun
2. —I hear Jane has gone to the Holy Island for her holiday.
—Oh, how nice! Do you know when she ________?
A. was leaving B. had left
C. has left D. left
3.. I ________ you not to move my dictionary—now I can’t find it.
A. asked B. ask
C. was asking D. had asked

1. when引导的是一个非限制性定语从句,when指20世纪90年代初,当然用一般过去时。
2.. D. 因为Jane已经度假去了,“离开”此地就当然是在此之前的过去某个时间了,所以用一般过去时,选D。另外,when通常都不与完成时连用,排除B和C,A也与语境不符。
3.. A. 由now可知前句的意思是:我曾经叫你不要搬动我的词典的 (你偏不听)。“叫”是在过去发生的动作,用一般过去时。