课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.…but things got so bad recently that he decided to go on a diet.
……但是近来情况变得越发糟糕,以致他决定节食。

(1)things(要用复数形式)可以表示“情况”、“情形”、“状况”、“形势”等含义:
You've surely made things worse.
你确实使情况变得更糟了。

How are things going on with you?
你那里情况如何?

(2)get作不及物动词时可以表示“变得”:
I got interested in French.
我(变得)对法语感兴趣了。

I got angry with him.
我(变得)对他很生气。

(3)diet用于表示治疗某种疾病或调节体重的“特种饮食”、“规定饮食”时通常与on连用:
The doctor put him on a strict diet.
医生让他严格控制饮食。

She is on a diet.
她正在节食。

I once went on a diet for a week and then I gave up.
我曾经节食过一周,然后就放弃了。

2.First of all, he wrote out a long list of all the foods which were forbidden.
首先,他开列了一张长长的单子,上面列了所有禁吃的食物 。

(1)first of all为固定短语,表示“首先”、“第一”:
First of all I must see your passport.
首先我必须看一下你的护照。

(2)write out这个短语表示“(正式)写”、“写出”或“全部写出”:
You should write out a report.
你应该写一份报告。

3.The list included most of the things Hugh loves…
这张单子上的大多数食物都是休喜欢吃的……

It contained five large bars of chocolate and three bags of sweets!
里面装了5大块巧克力和3袋糖果!

include和contain都有“包含”的意思,但contain可以用于表示所包含的全部事物,include则只表示其中的一部分:
It included three bags of sweets.
其中有3袋糖果。(另外还有其他东西)

contain的主语通常为某个容器,include则含义更广:
Does the bill include a tip?
账单包括小费吗?

We're including you in our team.
我们把你列为我们队中的一员了。

4.Yesterday I paid him a visit.
昨天我去看望了他。

pay a visit to sb. 表示“拜访某人”:
I paid a visit to Jane the other day.
前几天我去看望了简。

5.…Hugh was still as fat as ever.
……休仍和往常一样胖。

as ever是as he ever was的省略形式。as…as ever这个结构表示“照旧”、“依然”:
He is as strong as ever.
他依然那么强壮。

6.It was obvious that he was very embarrassed.
显然他感到很尴尬。

it为先行主语,真正的句子主语是that引导的从句,它在句子中起名词的作用。从句作主语时通常前面用先行主语it,以免句子看上去头重脚轻:
It is certain now that he'll come on Monday.
现在可以肯定他星期一将会来。

语法 Grammar in use

一般过去时

第3课第27课的语法中我们都学习了一般过去时。在一段文字中,初次使用一般过去时的时候通常要有明确的时间状语,随后的叙述则可以不一定使用时间状语;如果不加before, after等词语,过去的动作就被认为是按所描述的顺序发生的:

One afternoon she set out from the coast in a small boat and was caught in a storm. Towards evening, the boat struck a rock and the girl jumped into the sea.
一天下午,她乘小船从海岸出发,遇上了风暴。天将黑时,小船撞在了一块礁石上,姑娘跳进了海里。

与一般过去时常用的两个词是once和recently:
I went on an excursion recently.
最近我作了一次短途旅行。

recently在表示“最近一段时期”时也可以与现在完成时连用:
I haven't heard from him recently.
我最近没有收到他的信。

一般过去时也可以用于时间状语从句中:
He closed the window before going out.
他出去前关上了窗户。