第1部分:词汇选项 (第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)
1 Mary has blended the ingredients.
A mixed B made
C cooked D eaten
2 They agreed to modify their policy.
A clarify B change
C define D develop
3 The economy continued to exhibit signs of decline in September.
A play B send
C show D tell
4 A notably short man,he plays basketball with his staff several times a week.
A practically B considerably
C remarkably D completely
5 The dentist has decided to extract her bad tooth.
A take out B repair
C push in D dig
6 It is absurd to predict that the sun will not rise tomorrow.
A ridiculous B funny
C odd D foolish
7 A lot of people could fall ill after drinking contaminated water.
A muddied B polluted
C mixed D troubled
8 The room is dim and quiet.
A tiny B pleasant
C dark D agreeable
9 The index is the government's chief gauge of future economic activity
A measure B opinion
C evaluation D decision
10 It's prudent to start any exercise program gradually at first.
A workable B sensible
C possible D feasible
11 He is renowned for his skill.
A remembered
C praised
B recommended
D well-known
12 You have to be patient if you want to sustain your position.
A maintain B establish
C acquire D support
13 She stood there.trembling with fear.
A jumping B crying
C swaying D shaking
14 Medical facilities are being upgraded.
A renewed B repaired
C improved D increased
15 Mary looked pale and weary.
A gloomy B ugly
C silly D exhausted

第2部分:阅渎判断 (第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)

Winners and Losers

Why are the biggest winners in the past decade of trade globalization mostly in South and East Asia,whereas the biggest losers are mostly in the.former Soviet bloc(集团)and
sub-Saharan Africa? History is a partial guide:East Asia has a long trading tradition,lately reinvigorated(给以新的活力)by the Chinese adoption of market economics.The Soviet Union,on the other hand,was sheltered from free-market forces for more than 70 years.In Africa,some countries are disadvantaged because of inadequate infrastructure(基础结构);many countries have little to trade but commodities,the prices of which have fallen in recent years.
In some regions,certain countries have suffered by adopting misguided policies,often
under pressure from International Monetary Fund.First among these is Russia.which in the
early 1990s tried to embrace capitalism before first building the institutions that make capitalism work,such as an independent bank system,a system of business law, and all adequate method for collecting taxes.Encouraged by the IMF the World Bank and the U.S.Department of the Treasury, President Boris Yeltsin's regime privatized the state.owned industrial sector, creating a class of oligarchs(寡头政治集团成员),who,knowing how unstable conditions were at home.sent their money abroad instead of investing it at home.
In contrast,China,the biggest winner from globalization,did not follow the IMF formula.
Of the former states of the Soviet bloc,only a few,notably Poland and Hungary, managed to grow, which they did by ignoring IMF advice and adopting expansionary plans.including
spending more than they collected in taxes.Botswana and Uganda are also Success stories:
despite their disadvantages,their countries achieved vigorous growth by creating stable civil societies,liberalizing trade and implementing reforms that ran counter to IMF prescriptions.
16 Japan has a long trading tradition.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

17 Russia was wrongly guided by the IMF.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

18 All African countries followed the IMF formula.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

19 The Soviet Union was a capitalist country.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

20 Australia is one of the biggest winners from globalization.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21 China did not take IMF advice.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

22 Many high officials in Russia have much benefited from privatization.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

第3部分:概括大意与完成句子 (第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)
Stanford University
1 Stanford University, famous as one of northern California's several institutions of higher learning,is sometimes called "the Harvard of the West." The closeness of Stanford to San Francisco,a city thirty-two miles to the north,gives the university a decidedly cosmopolitan (世界性的) flavor.
2 The students are enrolled mainly from the western United States.But most of the fifty states send students to Stanford,and many foreign students study here,as well.And standards for admission remain high.Young men and women are selected to enter the university from the upper fifteen percent of their high school classes.
3 Not only because of me high caliber(素质)of its students but also because of the desirable
location and climate,Stanford has attracted to its faculty some of the world's most respected
scholars.The university staff has included many Nobel prize winners such as Dr.Felix Bloch,Dr.Robert Hofstadter, and Dr.William Shockley in physics.Dr.Author Kornberg and Dr.Joshua
Lederberg in medicine.and Dr.Paul J.Flory and Dr.Linus Pauling in chemistry.The Russian
novelist Aleksandr Solzhenistsyn has been in residence.Stanford'S undergraduate school of engineering and its graduate schools of business,law,and medicine are especially well-regarded.
4 What is student life like on "The Farm"? Culturally.the campus is a magnet for both
students and citizens of nearby communities.P1ays,concerts,and operas are performed in the university's several auditoriums and in its outdoor theater, where graduations are also held.Several film series are presented during the school year.Guest lecturers from public and academic life frequently appear on campus.In the evenings,many students gather to socialize in the Student Union's coffee house;here the beverages(饮料)and the atmosphere both have a decidedly European flavor.For the sports-minded,the Stanford campus offers highly developed athletic facilities.Team spots,swimming,and track and field activity are a11 very much part of the Stanford picture.So are bicycling and jogging.
5 In addition to financial support from alumni(校友),Stanford receives grants from the
government and from private philanthropic(慈善的)foundations。In recent years,government
grants have made possible advanced studies in the fields of history, psychology, education,and atomic energy.At present Stanford is carrying out an ambitious building program,financed in part by山e Ford Foundation's 25 million grant.Recently added to the campus are a new physics building,new school of business,new graduate school of law,new student union,and undergraduate library.

23 Paragraph 2
24 Paragraph 3
25 Paragraph 4
26 Paragraph 5

A Colorful Life on Campus
B Intelligent Student Body
C School Administration
D Distinguished Faculty
E Substantial Financial Support
F The Harvard of the West

27 Those high school graduates who can enter Stanford University
28 Many professors like to teach in this university partly because here
29 On the faculty of the university there are
30 Financial support from both private organizations and the government has made

A they can find the best students
B the university's academic advancement and physical extension
C some of the most distinguished scholars
D where a sports meet is held every year
E must have been the top student's in their classes
F must be hardworking

Technology Transfer in Germany
When it comes to translating basic research into industrial Success,few nations can match Germany.Since the 1940s,the nation's vast industrial base has been fed with a constant stream of new ideas and expertise from science.And though German prosperity(繁荣)has faltered(衰退)over the past decade because of the huge cost of unifying east and west as well as the global economic decline.it still has an enviable record for turning ideas into profit.
Much of the reason for也at success is the Fraunhofer Society,a network of research
institutes t11at exists solely to solve industrial problems and create sought-after technologies.But today the Fraunhofer institutes have competition.Universities are taking an ever larger role in technology transfer, and technology parks are springing up all over.These efforts are being complemented by the federal programmes for pumping money into start-up companies.
Such a strategy may sound like a recipe for economic success,but it is not without its critics.These people worry that favouring applied research will mean neglecting basic science,eventually starving industry of fresh ideas.If every scientist starts thinking like an entrepreneur(企业家),the argument goes,then the traditional principles of university research being curiosity.driven.free and widely available will Suffer.Others claim that many of the programmes to promote technology transfer are a waste of money because half the small businesses that are promoted are bound to go bankrupt within a few years.
While this debate continues,new ideas flow at a steady rate from Germany's research
networks.which bear famous names such as Helmholtz,Max Planck and Leibniz.Yet it is the fourth network,the Fraunhofer Society, that plays the greatest role in technology transfer.
Founded in 1949, the Fraunhofer Society is now Europe's largest organisation for applied
technology,and has 59 institutes employing 12,000 people.It continues to grow.Last year, it swallowed up the Heinrich Hertz Institute for Communication Technology in Berlin.Today,
there are even Fraunhofers in the US and Asia.

31 What factor can be attributed to German prosperity?
A Technology transfer.
B Good management.
C Hard work.
D Fierce competition.

32 Which of the following is NOT true of traditional university research?
A It is free.
B It is profit-driven.
C It is widely available.
D It is curiosity-driven.

33 The Fraunhofer Society is the largest organisation for applied technology in
A Asia.
C Europe.
D Africa.

34 When.was the Fraunhofer Society founded?
A In 1940.
B Last year.
C After the unification.
D In 1949.

35 The word "expertise'' in line 3 could be best replaced by
A "experts".
B ‘‘scientists".
C "scholars".
D ‘‘special knowledge".

Star Quality
A new anti-cheating system for counting the judges' scores in ice skating is flawed,
according to leading sports specialists.Ice skating's governing body announced the new rules last week after concerns that a judge at the Winter Olympics may have been unfairly influenced.
Initially the judges in the pairs figure-skating event at the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City voted 5 to 4 to give the gold medal to a Russian pair,even though they had a fall during their routine.But the International Skating Union suspended the French judge for failing to reveal that she had been put under pressure to Vote for the Russians.The International Olympics Committee then decided to give a second gold to the Canadian runners-up(亚军).
The ISU,skating's governing body, now says it intends to change the rules.In future 14 judges will judge each event,but only 7 of their scores--selected at random--will count,
The ISU won't finally approve the new system until it meets in June but already UK Sport.
the British Government's sports body.has expressed reservations."I remain to be convinced that the random selection system would offer the guarantees that everyone concerned with ethical sport is looking for'',says Jerry Bingham,UK Sport's head of ethics(伦理).
A random system can still be manipulated,says Mark Dixon,a specialist on sports statistics from the Royal Statistical Society in London."The score of one or two judges who have been nobbled(受到贿赂)may still be in the seven selected."
Many other sports that have judges,including diving,gymnastics,and synchronized
swimming.have a system that discards the highest and lowest scores.If a judge was under
pressure to favour a particular team,they would tend to give it very high scores and mark down the opposition team,so their scores wouldn't count.It works for diving,says Jeff Cook,a member of the international government body's technical committee."If you remove those at the top and bottom you're left with those in the middle,SO you're getting a reasonable average.''
Since the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, diving has tightened up in its system still further.Two separate panels of judges score different rounds of diving during top competitions.Neither panel knows the scores given by the other.‘'We have done this to head off any suggestion of bias."says Cook.
Bingham urged the ISU to consider other options."Tms should involve examining the way
in which other sports deal with the problem of adjudicating(裁定)on matter of style and
presentation,"he says.

36 Who won the gold medal in the pairs figure-skating event?
A The Russian pair.
B The Canadian pair.
C Both the Russian pair and the Canadian pair.
D The French pair.

37 According to the new rules proposed by the ISU,which of the following is right?
A The number of judges will be doubled.
B Only half of the judges will score.
C Only some selected judges will score.
D Only half of the scores will count.

38 What does Jerry Bingham express by saying "I remain to be convinced"?
A His anger.
B His criticism.
C His agreement.
D His doubt.

39 The attitude of those concerned in the UK to the new rules proposed by ISU Can be best described as
A indifferent.
B reserved.
C enthusiastic.
D positive.

40 Which of the following is NOT true of the scoring system for diving?
A It is more biased.
B It is more reasonable.
C It is fairer.
D It is tighter.

Eat More,Weigh Less,Live Longer
Clever genetic detective work may have found out the reason why a near。starvation diet
prolongs the life of many animals. ‘
Ronald Kahn at Harvard Medical School in Boston,US,and his colleagues have been able
to extend the lifespan(寿命)of mice by 18 per cent by blocking the rodent's(啮齿动物)
increase of fat in specific cells.This suggests that thinness--and hot necessarily diet--promotes long life in " calerie (热量卡) restricted" animals.
"It's very cool work."says aging researcher Cynthia Kenyon of the University of California,San Francisco."These mice eat all they want,lose weight and live longer.It's like heaven."
Calorie restriction dramatically extends the lifespan of organisms as different as worms and rodents.Whether this works in humans is still unknown,partly because few people are willing to submit to such a strict diet.
But many researchers hope they will be able to trigger the same effect with a drug once
they understand how less food leads to a longer life.One theory is that eating less reduces the increase of harmful things that can damage cells.But Kahn's team wondered whether the
animals simply benefit by becoming thin.
To find out。they used biology tricks to disrupt the insulin(胰岛素)receptor(受体)gene in lab mice-_but only in their fat cells."Since insulin is needed to help fat cells store fat,these animals were protected against becoming fat,"explains Kahn.
This slight genetic change in a single tissue had dramatic effects.By three months of age,Kahn,s modified mice had up to 70 per cent less body fat than normal control mice,despite the fact that they ate 55per cent more food per gram of body weight.
In addition,their lifespan increased.The average control mouse lived 753 days,while the thin rodents averaged a lifespan of 887 days.After three years,all the control mice had died,but one--quarter of the modified rodents were still alive.
"That they get these effects by just manipulating t11e fat cells is controversial,"says
Leonard Guarente of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who studies calorie restriction and aging.
. But Guarente says Kahn has yet to prove that the same effect is responsible for increased
lifespan in calorie.restricted animals."It might be the same effect or there might be two routes to long life,"he points out,"and that would be very interesting."

41 Ronald Kahn and his colleagues can make mice live longer by
A offering them less food.
B giving them a balanced diet.
C disrupting the specific genes in their fat cells.
D preventing them growing larger

42 According to t11e passage,we d0 not know whether humans will benefit from taking in fewer calories partly because
A humans,worms and rodents are different.
B most people are not willing to be put on a strict diet.
C the effect is not known.
D genetic changes in tissues can not be performed on humans

43 What does the last sentence in the third paragraph imply?
A People like to lose weight,but they do not like to eat less.
B People want to go to heaven.but they do not want to die.
C Mice will go to heaven if they lose weight.
D Mice enjoy losing weight.

44 The average modified mouse lived
A 3 years.
B 753 days.
C More than 3 years.
D 887 days.

45 What Can be inferred from the passage about the route tO long life?
A It remains to be studied.
B It has already been discovered.
C Eating more leads to long life.
D Eating less leads to long life.

第5部分:补全短文 (第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)
Why Would They Falsely Confess?
Why on earth would an innocent person falsely confess to committing a crime? To most
people,it just doesn't seem logical.But it is logical,say expels,if you understand what Call happen in a police interrogation(审讯)room.
Under t11e right conditions,people's minds are susceptible(易受影响的)to influence,and the pressure put on suspects during police grillings (盘问)is enormous. (46)"The
pressure is important to understand.because otherwise it's impossible to understand why
someone would say he did something he didn't do.The answer is:to put an end to an
uncomfortable situation that will continue until he does confess.''
Developmental psychologist Allison Redlich recently conducted a laboratory
determine how likely people are to confess to things they didn't do.
study to (47)The researchers then intentionally crashed the computers and accused the participants of hitting the ‘‘alt'' key to see if they would sign a statement falsely taking responsibility.
Redlich's findings clearly demonstrate how easy it can be to get people to falsely confess:59 percent of the young adults in the experiment immediately confessed (48)Of
the 1 5-to 1 6-year-olds,72 percent signed confessions,as did 78 percent of the 1 2-to
"There's no question that young people are more at risk,"says Saul Kassin,Professor at Williams College,who has done similar studies with similar results. (49)
a psychology
Both Kassin and Redlich note that the entire ‘‘interrogation" in their experiments consisted of a simple accusation--not hours of aggressive questioning--and still,most participants falsely confessed.
Because of the stress of a police interrogation,they conclude,suspects can become
convinced that falsely confessing is the easiest way out of a bad situation. (50)

A In her experiment.participants were seated at computers and told not to hit the "alt'' key,because doing SO would crash the systems.
B "In some ways,"says Kassin,"false confession becomes a rational decision.''
C ‘‘It's a little like somebody's working on them with a dental(牙齿的)drill,"says Franklin Zimring,a law professor at the University of California at Berkeley.
D "But adults are highly vulnerable too.''
E How could an innocent person admit to doing something he didn't do?
F Redlich also found that the younger the participant,the more likely a false confession.

第6部分:完形填空 (第5~65题,每题1分,共15分)
Less Is More
It sounds all wrong--drilling holes in a piece of wood to make it more resistant to knocks.But it works because the energy from the blow gets distributed throughout the wood rather than focusing on one weak spot.The discovery should lead to more effective and lighter packaging materials.
Carpenters have known (51)centuries that some woods are tougher than others.
Hickory(山核桃木),for example,was turned into axe handles and cartwheel spokes(轮辐)
because it Can absorb shocks without breaking.White oak,for example,is much more easily
damaged, (52)it is almost as dense.Julian Vincent at Bathe University and his team
were convinced the wood's internal structure could explain the differences.
Many trees have tubular(管的)vessels that run (53)the trunk and carry water to the leaves.In oak they are large,and arranged in narrow bands,but in hickory they are smaller,and more evenly distributed.The researchers (54)this layout might distribute a blow's energy throughout the wood.soaking up a bigger hit.To test the idea,they drilled holes 0.65 millimetres across into a block of spruce(云杉),a wood with (55)vessels,and found

that (56)withstood a harder knock. (57)when there were more than about 30
holes per square centimetre did the wood's performance drop off.
A uniform substance doesn't cope well with knocks because only a small proportion of the material is actually (58).All the energy from the blow goes towards breaking the
material in one or two places,but often the pieces left (59)are pristine(未经破坏的).
But instead of the energy being concentrated in one place,the holes provide many weak
spots that all absorb energy as they break,says Vincent."You are controlling the places
(60)the wood breaks,and it can then absorb more (61),more safely."
The researchers believe the principle could be applied to any material- (62)
example.to manufacture lighter and more protective packaging.It could (63)be used
in Car bumpers,crash barriers and armour for military vehicles,says Ulrike Wegst, (64)the Max Plank Institute for Mental Research in Stuttgart.But she emphasizes that you
(65)to design the substance with the direction of force in mind."The direction of
loading is crucial,"she says.

51 A in B since C for D at
52 A or B although C and D despite
53 A down B over C up D into
54 A knew B concluded C saw D thought
55 A no B per C each D every
56 A it B the idea C they D spruce
57 A if B Just C Only D Rarely
58 A effected B beaten C slapped D affected
59 A behind B beyond C for D in
60 A which B there C that D where
61 A water B air C energy D safety
62 A among B in C as D for
63 A also B besides C else D yet
64 A over B at C around D on
65 A have B must C should D had