Section (A)
Legal and Moral Implications of Cloning
At first it was just plain surprising. Word last week that a scientist named Ian Wilmut had succeededin cloning an adult mammal — an achievement long thought impossible — caught the imagination ofeveryone. The laboratory process that produced Dolly, an unremarkable-looking sheep, theoreticallywould work for humans as well. A world with human clones was suddenly within reach. It was sciencefiction coming to life.
In the wake of Wilmut's announcement, governments hurried to draft guidelines for the unknown, afuture filled with incredible possibilities. President Clinton ordered a national commission to study thelegal and moral implications of cloning. Leaders in Europe, where most nations already prohibit humancloning, began examining the moral implications of cloning other species.
Like the Theory of Relativity, the splitting of the atom, and the first space flight, Dolly's appearancehas generated a long list of difficult puzzles for scientists, politicians, and philosophers. And wildquestions on the topic of cloning continue to mount.
Why would anyone want to clone a human being in the first place?
The human cloning situations that experts consider most frequently fall into two broad categories: 1)parents who want to clone a child, either to provide transplants for a dying child or to replace that child,and 2) adults who for a variety of reasons might want to clone themselves.
Will it be possible to clone the dead?
Perhaps, if the body is fresh, says one expert. The cloning method used by Wilmut's lab requirescombining an egg cell with the nucleus of a cell containing the DNA of the person to be cloned. (DNA is avery long, ribbon -like molecule that contains our genetic information.) And that means that thenucleus must be intact. Cells die and the cell nucleus begins to break apart after death. But, yes, intheory at least it might be possible.
Would a cloned human be identical to the original?
Identical genes don't produce identical people, as anyone who knows a set of identical twins can tellyou. In fact, twins are more alike than clones would be, since they have at least shared the sameenvironment within the mother, are usually raised in the same family, and so forth. Parents could clonea second child who resembled their first in appearance, but all the evidence suggests the two wouldhave very different personalities. Twins separated at birth do sometimes share personalitycharacteristics, but such characteristics in a cloned son or daughter would only be reminders of thechild who was lost.
Even in terms of biology, a clone would not be identical to the "master copy". The clone's cells, forexample, would have energy-processing machinery that came from the egg, not from the person whowas cloned. But most of the physical differences between originals and copies are so minor thatdetection of them would require a sophisticated laboratory. The one possible exception is bearingchildren. Wilmut and his coworkers are not sure that Dolly will be able to have lambs. They will try tofind out once she's old enough to breed.
What if parents decided to clone a child in order to harvest organs?
Most experts agree that it would be psychologically harmful if a child sensed he had been broughtinto the world simply as an organ donor. But some parents already produce second children withnonfatal transplants in mind, and many experts do not oppose this. Cloning would increase the chancesfor a tissue match from 25 percent to nearly 100 percent.
If cloned animals could be used as organ donors, we wouldn't have to worry about cloning twins fortransplants. Pigs, for example, have organs similar in size to humans'. But the human body attacks anddestroys tissue from other species. To get around that, one company is trying to alter the pig's geneticcode to prevent pig organs from being attacked. If the company's technicians succeed, it may be moreefficient to produce such pigs by cloning than by current methods.
How would a human clone refer to the donor of its DNA?
"Mom" is not right, because the woman or women who supplied the egg and gave birth to the infantwould more appropriately be called Mother. "Dad" isn't right, either. A traditional father supplies onlyhalf the DNA in a child. Judith Martin, in her writings under the name of "Miss Manners";, suggests thephrase, "Most honored sir or madam". Why? "One should always respect one's ancestors," she says,"regardless of what they did to bring one into the world."That still leaves some confusion over vocabulary. The editorial director of one dictionary says thatthe noun "clonee" may sound like a good term, but it's not clear enough. Instead, he prefers "original"and "copy".
What are the other implications of cloning for society?
The gravest concern isn't really cloning itself, but genetic engineering — the deliberate altering ofgenes to create human beings according to certain requirements. Specifically, some experts areconcerned about the creation of a new (and disrespected) social class: "the clones". One expert believesthe situation could be comparable to what occurred in the 16th century, when Europeans puzzled overhow to classify the unfamiliar inhabitants of the Americas, and endlessly debated whether or not theywere humans.
The list of questions could go on; people are just beginning to wonder about the future of the worldafter cloning. 
Words: 900
New Words
implication n. 1.含义,暗示 2.牵连,卷入
▲clone v. (使)无性繁殖;克隆
n. 无性繁殖系(个体);克隆
fiction n. 1.小说 2.虚构,想像
draft vt. 1.起草,草拟 2.征募,征召
n. 1.草稿,草案,草图 2.汇票
guideline n. 指导原则,指导方针,准则
prohibit vt. 禁止;阻止,使不可能
relativity n. 1.【物理】爱因斯坦的相对论(指出一切运动都是相对的,而且把时间看作是与空间有关
的第四维) 2.相关性,相对性
split v. 1.(使)裂开,(使)破裂 2.(使)分裂
n. 裂缝,分裂
atom n. 1.原子 2.微粒,极小之物
mount vi. 增加,上升
vt. 1.登上 2.准备并进行;组织,发动
category n. 种类,类型,范畴
▲transplant n. 1.移植的器官或植物 2.(组织或器官的)移植
vt. 1.移栽,移种(植物等) 2.移植(器官) 3.使迁移,使移居
nucleus n. 1.细胞核,核 2.原子核 3.中心,核心
■DNA n. 脱氧核糖核酸
ribbon n. 缎带,丝带
▲genetic a. 遗传的,遗传学的
▲intact a. 完整无缺的,未经触动的
gene n. 基因
twin n. 孪生儿,双胞胎
resemble vt. 像,类似
machinery n. (总称)机器,机械
minor a. 较小的,较少的;低级的,次要的
n. 未成年人
detection n. 察觉,发觉;探测
breed vi. (动物)繁殖,产仔
vt. 饲养,繁殖
n. 品种,种,属
organ n. 1.器官 2.风琴
■donor n. 1.献血者;捐献器官的人 2.捐赠者
fatal a. 决定命运的 ;致命的
◆nonfatal n. 非致命的
tissue n. 1.组织 2.薄纸,纸巾
code n. 1.代码,密码 2.法典,法规,准则
vt. 译成电码
technician n. 技术人员,技师
infant n. 婴儿
phrase n. 短语,词组,用语
vt. 用言语表达,叙述
confusion n. 1.困惑,迷乱,分辨不清 2.混淆 3.混乱,骚乱
editorial a. 编辑的,主编的
n. 社论
deliberate a. 1.故意的,蓄意的 2.谨慎的,慎重的
v. 认真考虑,研讨
specifically ad. 1.明确地,具体地 2.特别地,特意
comparable a. 可比较的,类似的
classify vt. 分类,归类
debate v. 讨论,辩论
n. 讨论,辩论
Phrases and Expressions
succeed in doing sth. 成功,完成
work for 适用于 为... ...工作
as well (as ) 也,和,除... ...之外
within (one's) reach 在伸手能及的范围以内 近的;方便到达的
come to life 活跃起来,表现生动
in the wake of 随着,紧跟着
in the first place 首先,一开始
fall into 可分成;属于
provide for 为... ...提供(所需的某物)
break apart 自行裂开
in theory 理论上
identical to / with 与……一模一样
and (so on and) so forth 等等
What if … …要是……怎么办
bring into the world 生(孩子)
with sth. in mind 出于……目的
get around 成功地解决,克服
refer to 将……称为 提及,谈到 查阅,询问 转送至某人以便得到处理或帮助
give birth to sb. / sth. 生(孩子);产(仔)
under the name of 用别名
regardless of 不顾,不管
be concerned about / over 担心,担忧
comparable to / with 可与……相比
puzzle over 努力思考
wonder about 对……好奇;想知道;对……疑惑
Proper Names
Ian Wilmut 伊恩·威尔莫特
Dolly 多莉(羊)
Clinton 克林顿(美国前总统)
Judith Martin 朱迪斯·马丁
Miss Manners 礼仪小姐