Unit 5 Section A Weeping for My Smoking Daughter

Objectives

Students will be able to:

1. grasp the main idea

2. master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;

3. conduct a serious of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit.

Cultural Notes

1. Camel

Is the name of a kind of cigarette. The University of Iowa Department of Communication Studies conducted a study that explores the R.J.Reynolds Advertising Campaigns for Camel Cigarettes and their early use of the cartoon character,” Joe Cool Camel” to attract young people. It includes some discussion of the court case that resulted in this character being thrown out and replaced by an ordinary camel.

2.Both Marlboro and Players are brand names of cigarettes manufactured by Philips Morris. The company’s web site provides an overview of the company, its products and its marketing policies, and discusses various tobacco issues such as health, youth smoking and environment.

3. Prince Albert (1819-1861) was the husband of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. This is also the name of a kind of British tobacco.

4. Queen Victoria(1819-1901) was queen of Great Britain and Ireland(1837-1901) and empress of India. Her Rule was the longest in English history.

5. Eatonton is a town in the state of Georgia, USA. The official site of the Eatonton Chamber of Commerce includes information on the town’s history, resources, geography and the people.

6. Georgia is a state in the Southeastern U.S., surrounded by Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, North Carolina and South Carolina, and the Atlantic Ocean.

7.Hollywood is the center of the U.S. movie industry. In terms of geography, Hollywood refers to an area consisting of the City of West Hollywood and its vicinity that form part of the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area.

8.Third World refers to the technologically less advanced or developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.

9. A battered women’s shelter is a place for women and children to escape from violent relationships.

Global Reading

Structure:

The cause-and-effect structure is not new to us. We came across this structure before.

However, it is very useful to have a review of this structure. We find through our analysis that the writer of the text presents us with a horrible picture of the harmful effects of smoking. And the harmful effects are described as a result of the cause—smoking.

In Paragraph 6, the author presents us with an effective advertisement about a confident or fashionable older man and a beautiful, “worldly” young woman, both of them smoking leisurely. Because of the powerful advertisements, the effects are money falling into tobacco companies, people starving for food and air and becoming increasingly weakened and eventually, poisonous smoking killing people.

Detailed Reading (language study & patterns)

1. Weeping for My Smoking Daughter(Title)

weep:vi. Cry

Mrs. Miller wept at the news that her cat had been killed by a truck.

weep with joy 喜极而泣

The girl wept for her sad fate.女孩为自己的苦命悲叹落泪。

2. …I am looking at the half-empty package of Camels…(Para.1)

Package:n. a box or pocket in which things are packed

a package of towels 一包毛巾

a package of cigarettes一包香烟

a package of peas一袋豌豆

a large package of books一大包书

3.…tossed carelessly at hand. (Para.1)

Meaning:…thrown carelessly near her.

(close) at hand :within reach; near

When Betty writes, she always keeps a dictionary at hand. 贝蒂写作时,手边总放着一本词典。

Fortunately there was someone at hand, so we asked him to deliver the message at once.幸好旁边有个人,我们就请他立即把信送去。

This phrase can also be used figuratively to refer to time, meaning: near in time.

The end –of-term exam is at hand. 期末考试近在眼前。

4. I pick them up,…(Para.1)

Pick up: lift sth. Or sb. From a surface

The boy picked up a stone and threw it at the window.男孩捡起一块石头朝窗户扔去。

I picked up the telephone and rang her number.我那起了电话拨她的号码。

It’s difficult for a short-sighted person to pick up a needle from the ground.眼睛近视的人要从地上把针捡起来是很艰难的。

The student turned over to the police the wallet he had picked up in the street.这个学生把他在马路上捡到的钱包交给了警察。

The woman picked the baby up in her arms and held it tight.那女人双手将孩子抱起,并紧紧揽在怀里。

5. …and study them—they’re filtered, for which I am grateful.(para.1)

“study” is used here in the sense of “examine carefully”.

She studied the map. 她仔细查看地图。

He studied her face wondering what she was thinking about. 他仔细看她的脸,琢磨她在想什么。

6.they are filtered…(Para.1)

filter: vt. To filter sth. Means to pass it through a device which is designed to remove certain elements contained in it.

Filtered cigarettes 过滤嘴香烟

Filtered coffee滤过的咖啡

The best prevention for the disease is to boil or filter water; and eat only well-cooked food. 预防该疾病的最好办法是将水烧开或过滤,只使用煮透了的事物。

7….they’re filtered, for which I am grateful.(Para.1)

grateful: a. wanting to thank sb. for sth.

We are very grateful to you for your help when we are in trouble.

8. …I hardened myself against feeling so bad;…(Para. 1)

Meaning:… I made myself become less sympathetic and less easily affected emotionally;…

Harden:v.

1) make sb. less conscious of; (cause sb. to )become stronger, severe, unkind, or lacking human feelings

He became hardened to the suffering around him. 他对周围人的疾苦变得麻木不仁。

For her own good, Lisa hardened her heart against Aunt Janet. 为了自己的利益,莉莎对珍妮特姨妈变得冷酷无情。

Rough living in the desert hardened the young men a lot.沙漠中的艰苦生活把这些年轻人锻炼得更加坚强。

As the war progressed, attitudes on both sides hardened. 随着战争的进展,双方的态度都变得强硬了。

2) (cause sth. to ) become hard, strong, etc.

The food hardens as it cools. 食物冷却时变硬。

The paint takes a few minutes to harden. 这油漆需要几分钟才变硬。

9…. Nobody I know ever smoked these brands. (Para.1)

brand: n. a type of product manufactured by a particular company

Which brand of toothpaste do you prefer? 你喜欢什么牌子的牙膏?

The company sells goods under their own brand.这家公司用他们自己的品牌出售商品。

This product is the brand leader. 这种产品比其他产品卖得好。

10.…it was Camels that my father, her grandfather, smoked.(Para. 2)

It is (was) …that (who) : This structure is used for emphasis.

It was the new machine that they used.

It was the teacher who helped them solve the problem.

Notice that this structure can be used to emphasize any element of a clause except the verb. Another point to note is that “that”, not “when” or “where”, is used even if this structure is used to emphasize an adverbial of time or place.

It was last month that I bought a video camera.

It was in London that I met her for the first time.

In these two sentences we never use “when” or “where”.

11. upon getting out of bed.(Para.4)

Upon/on : prep.immediatly after the occasion of sth.

Upon asking for information I was told I must wait. 在打听消息时,我被告知必须等待。

On being introduced to someone, a British person often shakes hands. 当被介绍给别人时,英国人通常握手。

I saw them on my return. 我一回来就见到了他们。

12.…the beautiful, “worldly” young woman,…(Para. 6)

worldly: a. experienced and has much knowledge of the practical elements of life instead of things of the spirit

After ten years in London, my sister is much more worldly than she used to be.在伦敦生活了十年,我妹妹比以前善于处世多了。

Worldly people 俗人

An experienced and worldly man who had been almost everywhere.一个几乎去过任何地方,经验丰富又老于世故的人

13….both dragging away. (Para. 6)

drag:vi.(slang) smoke (a cigarette)

He waited and dragged at the cigarette.他边等边抽烟。

away: ad. All the time, continuously

They worked away all day. 他们整天不停地工作。

I heard him pounding away. 我听见他不停地用锤子敲东西。

14. …the boiled water from a bunch of them makes an effective insecticide. (Para. 6)

Bunch: a number of things, usu. Of the same kind, growing, held or in a group together

a bunch of flowers 一束花

a bunch of keys on a ring 圈上的一串钥匙

a bunch of grapes/bananas 一串葡萄/香蕉

a bunch of newspapers 一捆报纸

Grass growing in bunches 丛生的草

15. …the boiled water from a bunch of them makes an effective insecticide. (Para. 6)

make: vt. If one thing makes another thing, it serves or functions as another thing.

This hall would make an excellent theatre. 这个大厅能成为绝好的剧院。

Cold tea makes a good drink in summer.凉茶在夏季是理想的饮料。

Their success makes a good ending to the book.他们的成功成为这部书的圆满结局。

insecticide: n. a chemical substance used to kill insects

Agricultural insecticide 农用杀虫剂

Chemical insecticide 化学杀虫剂

Spray insecticide on crops 往庄稼上喷杀虫剂

16. ..surely one such victory in my family, for the prosperous leaders who own the tobacco companies, is enough.(Para. 8)

Meaning: …surely one victim of the tobacco industry in my family means that the prosperous owners of the tobacco companies have won a victory in my family, but one such victim is enough.

Homework

1. Finish the exercises in Section A.

2. Prepare for Section B.

Section B Stop Spoiling your Children

Ⅰ. Understanding Figrative Language

The particular reading skill introduced in this unit is understanding figurative language. To make language clearer, more interesting, and more striking, all of us use expressions which are not literally true. We make comparisons in speaking and writing. Figurative language—language that compares—paints a picture for the reader. Figurative language can be confusing if it is understood literally. The ability to recognize and interpret figurative language may help us fully understand a writer’s point.

There are many different ways of using figurative language. Listed here are just a few of them:

a) Similes. These are figurative expressions which directly compare one thing to nother by using the words as or like.:

The tobacco industry, coupled with Hollywood movies in which both male and female heroes smoked like chimneys,…(Para. 3, Unit 5)

In this sentence, “…smoked like chimneys” means “…smoked heavily and continuously”, but the comparison between the two makes the idea clearer and more imaginative.

b) Metaphors, in which comparisons are only implied or suggested, without using as, like and the like. Take another example from text A:

The tobacco industry…completely won over people like my father, who were hopelessly hooked by cigarettes.(Para. 3, unit 5)

In this sentence, the idea of people relying on smoking is expressed as that of people being hooked by cigarettes. “Hook” is commonly used in relation to fishing and just as fish are hooked and cannot get away, so are cigarette smokers. This implied, parallel image makes the thought more striking and powerful.

Ⅱ. Language Points:

1. In it, I often find so many toys that there’s almost no room—even for my small lavatory or toilet kit. (Para. 1)

Meaning: In the bathroom, I often find that there are so many toys that I cannot find enough space even for the few daily personal care items I bring along with me when I have to stay away from home overnight.

room: n. space that could be filled, or that is enough for the stated purpose

There is room for three on the back seat. 后面的座位能坐三个人。

A computer does not take up much room. 计算机不太占地方。

2. …even for my small lavatory or toilet kit.( Para. 1)

lavatory: A lavatory is the same asa toilet; it is used mainly in British English.

kit: a group of items that are kept together, often in the same container, because they are all used for similar purposes

a skiing kit 一套滑雪用具

a well-stocked first aid kit 备置充分的急救用品

a lavatory kit 洗漱用品

3…. the effects of this can actually be somewhat harmful to children.( Para. 2)

somewhat: ad. To some amount or degree; rather

I was somewhat disappointed. 我有点失望。

I am somewhat tired of this work. 我对这个工作有点厌倦了。

She’s somewhat more confident than she used to be.她比过去更自信了。

4.Parents who both hold down full time jobs may feel guilty about the amount of time they spend away from their children and, as accommodation for being away so much, may attempt to compensate by showring them with material possessions.( Para. 4)

Meaning: Parents who both worok during the whole of the whole of the usual working period may feel guilty because they think they spend too little time with their children, and they try to make up for this by giving their children many material things.

5. Parents who both hold down full-time jobs…(Para. 4)

Hold down: do a job well enough to remain in it for some time

He holds down quite a good job in the city. 他在城里拥有一份相当好的工作。

He is a good worker, and will hold down his job. 他是一个好工人,可以保住他的工作。

full-time:a. for or during the whole of the usual working period

A full-time student 全日制学生

In full-time employment 受雇做全日工作

The opposite word is “part-time”.

6.…they don’t obtain the same toys their friends have. (Para. 5)

obtain: vt. get; come to own

Where can I obtain this best-seller? 在哪里能买到这本畅销书?

Further information can be obtained from our headquarters in Beijing.

详细资料可以从我们在北京的总部得到。

7.…when parents are unable to stand up to their children’s unreasonable demands. (Para. 6)

Stand up to :

1) meet or face bravely; be against without fear

Why don’t you stand up to your boss when you know you are right.你明知道自己是对的,为什么不敢当面对你的老板说呢?

Don’t let her say things like that about your work—you should stand up to her a bit more.别让她那样议论你的工作,你应该进一步勇敢地向她提出来。

A soldier must stand up to danger. 士兵必须能勇敢的面对危险。

2) not be changed or damaged by

Will the lorries stand up to the journey over rough roads? 货车能经得起这颠簸不平的路途吗?

Their reasoning won’t stand up to detailed criticism. 他们的推论经不起仔细推敲。

8.Children may, to some degree, become greedy, selfish, ungrateful…(Para. 7)

greedy: a. 1) filled with desire for something

greedy for power, the general plotted a plan to knock down the government.因为权利欲望作祟,这个将军阴谋推翻政府。

Obviously, some people are simply greedy for power.显然,有些人贪恋权势。

2) having strong desires for food

We ate a lot as children but I don’t think we were ever greedy. 我们童年时确实很能吃,但我认为我们不贪吃。

3) longing for

He’s greedy for victory. 他渴望胜利。

This plant is greedy for water. 这株植物急需浇水。

9.…unconsciously hoping that, if they push too hard, they will force their parents into setting limitations. (Para. 7)

limitation:n.

1) condition or a fact that limits

limitations on earnings 对收入的限制

set limitations on reporting 对报告内容加以限制

Aren’t there any limitations on his spending money?他花钱有没有任何限制

2) limiting; being limited

the limitation of using underground water使用地下水的限制

They are resisting any limitation of their poweres. 他们在抵制对他们权力的任何限制。

10. The key is to be satisfied with gradual improvement, expecting and accepting the occasional slips that come with any change. (para. 11)

gradual: a. happening or developing slowly and by degrees; not sudden

There is a gradual improvement in his work. 他的工作逐步有了改进。

There has been a gradual increase in the number of people owning cars. 拥有汽车的人数在逐渐上升。

A gradual recovery 逐渐恢复

Ⅲ. Test Yourself

Dictation

1.Jean wrote the speaker’s address down in her notebook for fear that she might forget it.

2.Passengers must show their tickets on demand.

3.The secretary didn’t dare to stand up to her boss though she knew she was right.

4.I took it for granted that you would come with us, so I bought you a ticket.

5.She has been selfish all the time, but she has promised to turn over a new leaf and become more considerate of others.

6. People in this region have pined for a peaceful life since the religious war broke out three decades ago.

7. Poor health had made it difficult for Jim to hold down a job for more than a year.

8. Betty gets very depressed at times because of pressure of her work.