Can I say how delighted I am to be away from the calm of Westminster and Whitehall?

能暂时逃离英国国会与政府大楼的平淡无奇,我的喜悦之情真的是难以言表。


This is Kim, a nine-year-old Vietnam girl, her back ruined by napalm, and she awakened the conscience of the nation of America to begin to end the Vietnam War. This is Birhan, who was the Ethiopian girl who launched Live Aid in the 1980s, 15 minutes away from death when she was rescued, and that picture of her being rescued is one that went round the world. This is Tiananmen Square. A man before a tank became a picture that became a symbol, for the whole world, of resistance. This next is the Sudanese girl, a few moments from death, a vulture hovering in the background, a picture that went round the world and shocked people into action on poverty. This is Neda, the Iranian girl who was shot while at a demonstration with her father in Iran only a few weeks ago, and she is now the focus, rightly so, of the YouTube generation.

这是金菊,一名九岁的越南女孩。她那被汽油弹烧毁的后背唤醒了美国人民的良知,越战也因此而迈向终结。这是比尔汗,在80年代发起了 “Live Aid”的埃塞俄比亚女童。在她获救的时候,死亡距离她只有15分钟, 而她得救的照片也因此被传遍全球。这是天安门广场。坦克前的男人成了一幅照片,一个全世界反抗的象征。接下来的这位是个苏丹女童,死神与她近在咫尺,秃鹫在不远处徘徊。一张传遍世界的照片 震惊了人类,共同加入抗击贫困的实际行动中。这是妮达,几个星期前 在与她父亲示威时,不幸被射杀的伊朗女孩。而她成为当下 YouTube一代的焦点人物也是不无理由。


And what do all these pictures and events have in common? What they have in common is what we see unlocked and what we cannot see. What we see unlocked: the invisible ties and bonds of sympathy that bring us together to become a human community. What these pictures demonstrate is that we do feel the pain of others, however distantly. What I think these pictures demonstrate is that we do believe in something bigger than ourselves. What these pictures demonstrate is that there is a moral sense across all religions, across all faiths, across all continents -- a moral sense that not only do we share the pain of others, and believe in something bigger than ourselves but we have a duty to act when we see things that are wrong that need righted, see injuries that need to be corrected, see problems that need to be rectified.

这些照片与事件的共同之处在哪里呢?它们的共同之处就在于我们所看到开启了我们所看不到的。我们所看到的开启了人与人之间无形的纽带,我们的怜悯之心将我们聚集到一起,组成一个人类大家庭。这些照片证实了 无论距离的远近 我们都可以感受到他人的痛楚。这些照片证实了我们确实坚信比我们自身价值更崇高的事业。这些照片证实了我们拥有着一个跨越宗教,跨越信仰,跨越洲际的道德观—— 不仅仅让我们感受他人的痛楚 追求崇高的事业,更让我们意识到我们有义务行动起来,去纠正过错、化解伤痛、解决问题。

There is a story about Olof Palme, the Swedish Prime Minister, going to see Ronald Reagan in America in the 1980s. Before he arrived Ronald Reagan said -- and he was the Swedish Social Democratic Prime Minister -- "Isn’t this man a communist?" The reply was, "No, Mr President, he’s an anti-communist." And Ronald Reagan said, "I don’t care what kind of communist he is!" (Laughter) Ronald Reagan asked Olof Palme, the Social Democratic Prime Minister of Sweden, "Well, what do you believe in? Do you want to abolish the rich?" He said, "No, I want to abolish the poor." Our responsibility is to let everyone have the chance to realize their potential to the full.
话说80年代的时候,瑞典前首相奥洛夫·帕尔梅 曾想去美国拜访罗纳德·里根。 虽然说他当时是瑞典的社会民主党首相,不过在他到访之前,里根还是问道:“这个人是共产主义者吗?” 旁边的人回答道:“不,总统先生,他是一名反共产主义者。” 结果里根说道:“我不管他是哪种共产主义者!” (笑声) 里根曾经问过帕尔梅,当时瑞典的社会民主党首相 “你的信条是什么?你打算铲除富人吗?” 帕尔梅回答道:“不,我想铲除穷人。”我们的职责是让每个人都有实现自身潜能的机会。


I believe there is a moral sense and a global ethic that commands attention from people of every religion and every faith, and people of no faith. But I think what's new is that we now have the capacity to communicate instantaneously across frontiers right across the world. We now have the capacity to find common ground with people we will never meet but who we will meet through the Internet and through all the modern means of communication, that we now have the capacity to organize and take collective action together to deal with the problem or an injustice that we want to deal with, and I believe that this makes this a unique age in human history, and it is the start of what I would call the creation of a truly global society.

我坚信有一种世界共通的道德伦理观,值得引起人类的高度重视,不管是何种宗教,不管是有无信仰。但我觉得与以往不同的是我们现在拥有了跨越边界与世界交流的能力。我们现在拥有了通过互联网和各种现代通信手段来结识无法在现实生活中见面的志同道合的人士。 我们现在拥有了集体组织、联合行动共同解决问题、 处理不公正行为的能力。正因为如此,我坚信我们正处在一个独特的历史时刻,开创着一个真正全球化的社会。


Go back 200 years when the slave trade was under pressure from William Wilberforce and all the protesters. They protested across Britain. They won public opinion over a long period of time. But it took 24 years for the campaign to be successful. What could they have done with the pictures they could have shown if they were able to use the modern means of communication to win people’s hearts and minds?

200年前,贩奴贸易面临着来自威廉·威伯福斯和反对者的压力。各种反抗运动席卷英国。在很长的一段时间里,这些反对者都拥有着民众的支持,但整场运动却是花费了24年的时间才取得最终的胜利。设想一下,如果当初他们拥有现代的通讯技术 来传播照片、赢取民心,他们又将取得怎样的成就呢?


Or if you take Eglantyne Jebb, the woman who created Save the Children 90 years ago. She was so appalled by what was happening in Austria as a result of the First World War and what was happening to children who were part of the defeated families of Austria, that in Britain she wanted to take action, but she had to go house to house, leaflet to leaflet, to get people to attend a rally in the Royal Albert Hall that eventually gave birth to Save the Children, an international organization that is now fully recognized as one of the great institutions in our land and in the world. But what more could she have done if she’d had the modern means of communications available to her to create a sense that the injustice that people saw had to be acted upon immediately?

再来看看埃格兰泰恩·杰布女士,90年前她创建了救助儿童会。一战后的奥地利和战败家庭中儿童的悲惨经历 深深地惊骇了她,让她决定在英国行动起来。但她不得不挨家挨户散发传单,促使群众参加在皇家艾伯特大厅举行的集会,救助儿童会也因此而诞生,并成为我们国家,乃至整个世界最伟大的国际组织之一。但设想一下,如果她当初拥有现代的通讯技术,让人们意识到他们所目睹的不公行径急需解决的话,她所能做的恐怕不仅仅是这些吧?


Now look at what’s happened in the last 10 years. In Philippines in 2001, President Estrada -- a million people texted each other about the corruption of that regime, eventually brought it down and it was, of course, called the "coup de text." Then you have in Zimbabwe the first election under Robert Mugabe a year ago. Because people were able to take mobile-phone photographs of what was happening at the polling stations, it was impossible for that Premier to fix that election in the way that he wanted to do. Or take Burma and the monks that were blogging out, a country that nobody knew anything that was happening until these blogs told the world that there was a repression, meaning that lives were being lost and people were being persecuted and Aung San Suu Kyi, who is one of the great prisoners of conscience of the world, had to be listened to. Then take Iran itself, and what people are doing today, following what happened to Neda, people who are preventing the security services of Iran finding those people who are blogging out of Iran, changing their address to Tehran, Iran, and making it difficult for the security services.

让我们再来看看过去十年所发生的事情。 2001年的菲律宾,总统埃斯特拉达—— 当时的百万民众互传简讯,告发当下政体的腐败罪行,促使其引咎辞职,引发了所谓的“短信政变”。还有一年前的津巴布韦,在总统罗伯特·穆加贝统治下的首次大选。正是因为人们可以利用手机拍照,来记录在投票站所发生的一切,才使得穆加贝无法按计划地对选举结果进行暗箱操作。还有缅甸和那些通过博客与外界交流的僧侣们。人们之前对这个国家一无所知, 直到这些博客揭露了发生在那里的镇压, 遇难的生命,遭迫害的群众,才使得昂山素季,全世界最伟大的政治囚犯之一,终于有了倾诉的权利。再来看看伊朗,还有人们在妮达遇难后所做的一切。国家安全保卫部门的人士发现那些通过博客与外界交流的伊朗人把他们的地址通通改成了伊朗德黑兰, 让安全部的官员难以追查。


Take, therefore, what modern technology is capable of: the power of our moral sense allied to the power of communications and our ability to organize internationally.

这些都体现了现代科技的本领所在—— 我们的道德力量与通讯技能相结合,再加上在国际范围内组织活动的能力。


That, in my view, gives us the first opportunity as a community to fundamentally change the world. Foreign policy can never be the same again. It cannot be run by elites; it’s got to be run by listening to the public opinions of peoples who are blogging, who are communicating with each other around the world. 200 years ago the problem we had to solve was slavery. 150 years ago I suppose the main problem in a country like ours was how young people, children, had the right to education. 100 years ago in most countries in Europe, the pressure was for the right to vote. 50 years ago the pressure was for the right to social security and welfare. In the last 50-60 years we have seen fascism, anti-Semitism, racism, apartheid, discrimination on the basis of sex and gender and sexuality; all these have come under pressure because of the campaigns by people to change the world.

这一切,在我看来,给了我们第一次以一个共同体的身份从根本上改变我们这个世界的机会。外交政策将彻底改变,无法由掌权人士一手管控, 而应是遵循那些博客们, 那些在世界范围内与彼此交流的人所代表的民意。 200年前,我们需要解决的问题是奴隶制度。 150年前,我猜想像我们这样的国家所面临的主要问题 是年轻人、孩子们的受教育权利。 100年前在欧洲的大多数国家,投票选举权面临着巨大压力。 50年前这股压力则是转向了社会保障福利权。 在过往的五六十年里,我们目睹了法西斯主义、反犹太主义、种族歧视、种族隔离 以及种种对性别和性取向的歧视。 这一切都面临着强大的社会压力, 正是由于人们所发起的各种运动,以求改变世界。


I was with Nelson Mandela a year ago when he was in London. I was at a concert that he was attending to mark his birthday and for the creation of new resources for his foundation. I was sitting next to Nelson Mandela -- I was very privileged to do so -- when Amy Winehouse came onto the stage and Nelson Mandela was quite surprised at the appearance of the singer and I was explaining to him at the time who she was. Amy Winehouse said, "Nelson Mandela and I have a lot in common. My husband too has spent a long time in prison." (Laughter) Nelson Mandela then went down to the stage and he summarized the challenge for us all. He said in his lifetime he had climbed a great mountain, the mountain of challenging and then defeating racial oppression and defeating apartheid. He said that there was a greater challenge ahead, the challenge of poverty, of climate change, global challenges that needed global solutions and needed the creation of a truly global society.

一年前我在伦敦会见了纳尔逊·曼德拉,我们当时正出席一个庆祝曼德拉生日和他的基金会求得新资源的演唱会。我当时就坐在曼德拉的身边——我对此感到非常荣幸。 当看到艾米·怀恩豪斯登上舞台的时候, 曼德拉显得有点吃惊,我只好向他解释艾米·怀恩豪斯是何许人物。艾米·怀恩豪斯在舞台上说道:“曼德拉和我有很多共同之处。我老公也曾在监狱里蹲了很长一段时间。” (笑声) 随后曼德拉走向舞台, 概述了我们所面临的挑战。他说,在他的有生之年里,他攀越了一座无比陡峻的高山,一座迎战并且击败种族压迫、隔离的大山。 他认为前方还有着更艰巨的挑战等待着我们,贫困的挑战,气候的挑战,种种全球性的挑战 急需着全球性的解决方案,急需着一个真正的全球性的社会。


We are the first generation which is in a position to do this. Combine the power of a global ethic with the power of our ability to communicate and organize globally with the challenges that we now face, most of which are global in their nature. Climate change cannot be solved in one country but has got to be solved by the world working together. A financial crisis, just as we have seen, could not be solved by America alone or Europe alone; it needed the world to work together. Take the problems of security and terrorism and, equally, the problem of human rights and development: they cannot be solved by Africa alone; they cannot be solved by America or Europe alone. We cannot solve these problems unless we work together.

而我们这一代是有实力做到这一切的第一代。将一个全球性的道德理念与我们的传播能力相结合,再在国际的范围内组织起来,共同来面对这些全球性的挑战。气候变化无法由一个国家来解决,而是需要全世界同心协力彼此合作。金融危机,就如我们目睹的一样,无法单单依靠美国或是欧洲来得以解决,而是需要世界范围内的合作。或者是来看看国家安全与恐怖主义的问题,抑或是同等重要的人权与发展的问题,这些问题都无法由非洲独立解决,也不能单独依靠美国或是欧洲。除非我们合作起来,这些问题是没有办法解决的。


So the great project of our generation, it seems to me, is to build for the first time out of a global ethic and our global ability to communicate and organize together, a truly global society, built on that ethic but with institutions that can serve that global society and make for a different future. We have now, and are the first generation with, the power to do this. Take climate change. Is it not absolutely scandalous that we have a situation where we know that there is a climate change problem, where we know also that that will mean we have to give more resources to the poorest countries to deal with that, when we want to create a global carbon market, but there is no global institution that people have been able to agree upon to deal with this problem? One of the things that has to come out of Copenhagen in the next few months is an agreement that there will be a global environmental institution that is able to deal with the problems of persuading the whole of the world to move along a climate-change agenda. (Applause)

所以在我看来,我们这一代最重要的工程 就是有史以来第一次通过全球性的道德观、全球性的沟通和组织能力,来建立起一个全球性的社会,以此道德规范为基础,但同时依赖于为全球性社会服务的种种机构,来开创一个不一样的未来。我们是有能力做到这一切的第一代。就拿气候变化来说吧,我们知道我们正面临着这样的一个局势,我们知道我们存在着气候变化的问题,我们也知道我们若是真想创建一个全球性的“碳市场”,我们就需要捐赠给贫穷国家更多的资源, 帮助他们来处理这一问题,但尽管如此,我们仍然没有一个 人们可以信赖认可的全球机构来解决这个问题, 这不是相当滑稽可耻的事情吗?几个月后将在哥本哈根举行的气候会议 所必须达成的协议之一就是建立一个全球性的环境机构,并且有能力来敦促整个世界为了气候变化的进程而共同行动起来。(掌声)


One of the reasons why an institution is not in itself enough is that we have to persuade people around the world to change their behavior as well, so you need that global ethic of fairness and responsibility across the generations. Take the financial crisis. If people in poorer countries can be hit by a crisis that starts in New York or starts in the sub-prime market of the United States of America. If people can find that that sub-prime product has been transferred across nations many, many times until it ends up in banks in Iceland or the rest in Britain, and people's ordinary savings are affected by it, then you cannot rely on a system of national supervision. You need in the long run for stability, for economic growth, for jobs, as well as for financial stability, global economic institutions that make sure that growth to be sustained has to be shared, and are built on the principle that the prosperity of this world is indivisible.

但仅仅建立这样的一个机构是不够的,原因之一就在于我们还需要说服世界各地的人们改变他们的日常行为,这就需要公平、负责的全球道德观 得以代代相传。再来看看当下的金融危机。如果一个从纽约开始、从美国次代市场开始的危机 可以影响到贫穷国家的人们的话,如果次代产品可以经过多次转手跨越国界,最终流通到冰岛的银行 或是英国其他地区,并且影响到普通民众的存款储蓄的话,那么一个国家性的监管机构就是不值得信赖的。长期的稳定、经济的增长、就业的保障以及金融的稳定都需要全球性的经济体制来确保稳定的发展得以共享,并且是建立在“世界的繁荣是不可划分” 的原则之上。


So another challenge for our generation is to create global institutions that reflect our ideas of fairness and responsibility, not the ideas that were the basis of the last stage of financial development over these recent years. Then take development and take the partnership we need between our countries and the rest of the world, the poorest part of the world. We do not have the basis of a proper partnership for the future, and yet, out of people’s desire for a global ethic and a global society that can be done.

所以说,面临我们这一代的另一个挑战,就是建立起 全球性的机构,来反映我们公正、负责的观念,而不是过往几年金融发展最后阶段不牢靠的地基。再来看看发展,还有我们和世界其他地区,尤其是那些贫困地区所需要建立的伙伴关系。我们暂时还没有一个可以在未来建立起一个合适的伙伴关系的基础,但只要人们渴求一个全球性的道德观、渴求一个全球性的社会,一切还是可以办到的。


I have just been talking to the President of Sierra Leone. This is a country of six and a half million people, but it has only 80 doctors, it has 200 nurses, it has 120 midwives. You cannot begin to build a healthcare system for six million people with such limited resources.

我刚刚在和塞拉利昂的总统交谈。那是一个拥有 650万人口的国家,但却只有80个医生,200个护士,120个助产士。如此短缺的资源是根本无法建立起一个可以服务600万人民的医疗体系的。


Or take the girl I met when I was in Tanzania, a girl called Miriam. She was 11 years old, her parents had both died from AIDS, her mother and then her father. She was an AIDS orphan being handed across different extended families to be cared for. She herself was suffering from HIV, she was suffering from tuberculosis. I met her in a field, she was ragged, she had no shoes. When you looked in her eyes, any girl at the age of eleven is looking forward to the future, but there was an unreachable sadness in that girl’s eyes and if I could have translated that to the rest of the world for that moment, I believe that all the work that it had done for the global HIV/AIDS fund would be rewarded by people prepared to make donations.

再来看看我在坦桑尼亚遇到的一个叫米丽亚姆的女孩。她当时11岁,她的母亲和父亲一前一后都死于艾滋病。她是一名艾滋孤儿,寄人篱下, 从一个亲戚家传到另一个亲戚家。她自己本身也是名艾滋病病毒感染者。她同时还患有肺结核。我是在一个田地里遇到的她。她当是赤着脚,而且衣衫褴褛。一般的 11岁女孩眼中都充满了对未来的向往,但是当你注视她的双眼时,你看到的却是难以触摸到的悲伤。如果我能把当时的感受传递到世界其他的角落,我相信那股悲伤将会打动很多人来为全球的艾滋基金捐款捐力。


We must then build a proper relationship between the richest and the poorest countries based on our desire that they are able to fend for themselves with the investment that is necessary in their agriculture, so that Africa is not a net importer of food, but an exporter of food.

因此,我们必须在富裕国家和贫困国家之间 建立起一个恰达的关系,建立在我们的渴望之上,那就是,这些贫困国家 可以充分利用他们农业上所需的投资来做到自给自足。这样一来,非洲将不在是一个食物进口者,而是一个食物出口者。


Take the problems of human rights and the problems of security in so many countries around the world. Burma is in chains, Zimbabwe is a human tragedy, in Sudan thousands of people have died unnecessarily for wars that we could prevent. In the Rwanda Children's Museum, there is a photograph of a 10-year-old boy and the Children's Museum is commemorating the lives that were lost in the Rwandan genocide where a million people died.

再来看看人权问题 还有世界众多国家所面临的安全问题。缅甸正被锁链捆绑,津巴布韦是个人间悲剧,在苏丹,成千上万的人正在本可避免的战争中 无辜地死去。在卢旺达的儿童博物馆里有一张一名十岁男童的照片。这个儿童博物馆现在正在纪念那些在卢旺达种族屠杀中所死去的上百万人的生命。


There is a photograph of a boy called David. Beside that photograph there is the information about his life. It said "David, age 10." David: ambition to be a doctor. Favorite sport: football. What did he enjoy most? Making people laugh. How did he die? Tortured to death. Last words said to his mother who was also tortured to death: "Don't worry. The United Nations are coming." And we never did.

照片中的小男孩叫做大卫。而照片旁边则是大卫的生平简介。上面写到:“大卫,十岁。梦想:成为一名医生。最爱的运动:足球。最喜欢做的事:引人发笑。死亡原因:折磨致死。对他同样被折磨致死的母亲所说的最后一句话:别担心,联合国的人就要来了。”可是我们没有。


And that young boy believed our promises that we would help people in difficulty in Rwanda, and we never did.

那个小男孩坚信我们的承诺,相信我们会帮助那些在卢旺达的受难人民,但我们却没有。


So we have got to create in this world also institutions for peacekeeping and humanitarian aid, but also for reconstruction and security for some of the conflict-ridden states of the world. So my argument today is basically this. We have the means by which we could create a truly global society. The institutions of this global society can be created by our endeavors. That global ethic can infuse the fairness and responsibility that is necessary for these institutions to work, but we should not lose the chance in this generation, in this decade in particular, with President Obama in America, with other people working with us around the world, to create global institutions for the environment, and for finance, and for security and for development, that make sense of our responsibility to other peoples, our desire to bind the world together, and our need to tackle problems that everybody knows exist.

因此我们必须在这个世界建立起用以维和以及人道救援的机构,还有帮助那些危难中的国家重建和安全的机构。所以我今天所要讲的基本上可以总结为如下的几点。我们有能力、有办法来创造一个真正的全球化的社会。而这个全球化社会的种种机构则需要我们的努力来建立。全球性的道德观可以为这些机构注入公正、负责的理念,使其起到应有的作用,但同时我们也不应错失我们这一代的机会,尤其是当下的十年里,协同美国的奥巴马总统,还有来自全球与我们同心协力的人民,来创建保卫环境、金融、安全与发展的全球机构。这些机构理应明白我们对他人的责任感,我们想把这个世界联系起来的渴望感,还有我们想要解决已知问题的需求感。

It is said that in Ancient Rome that when Cicero spoke to his audiences, people used to turn to each other and say about Cicero, "Great speech." But it is said that in Ancient Greece when Demosthenes spoke to his audiences, people turned to each other and didn’t say "Great speech." They said, "Let's march." We should be marching towards a global society. Thank you. (Applause)

据说在古罗马,当西塞罗演讲的时候,人们会转向彼此,谈论西塞罗,“讲得真好。” 但是在古希腊,当狄摩西尼演讲的时候,人们也会转向彼此,但他们不会说:“讲得真好。” 他们会说,“让我们行动起来吧。” 我们应该为了全球化社会的目标而行动起来。谢谢大家。(掌声)


练听力,请到听无止境小组来!》》》》》》》

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