一、 独立主格结构的概念 独立主格结构（Absolute Structure）是由名词或代词加上分词等构成的一种独立结构，用于修饰整个句子。独立主格结构中的名词或代词与其后的分词等构成逻辑上的主谓关系。这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联系，它的位置相当灵活，可置于主句前、主句末或主句中，常由逗号将其与主句分开。需特别注意的是，独立主格结构与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。
He was watching TV, his mouth half open.
He fell to the ground, blood coming down his nose.
The policeman entered the dark room, gun in hand.
The old man sat down, his face pale with pain.
Meeting over, everyone tried to do something for the project.
Spring coming, the flowers are coming out.
The problem settled, everyone was filled with joy.
John (being) away, Tom had to do the work on his own.
It being dark, they had to walk with the torches on.
There being no bus, they had no choice but to take a taxi.
Weather permitting, we’ll have a picnic this Sunday.
Enough time given, we’ll do the job better.
如：With the problem settled, the computer restarted.
With the old man leading, we had no difficulty finding the old Red Army man’s house.
You should not speak to others with your mouth full of food.
He left the bathroom, with the water running.