本文选自吴应时主编的《大学英语六级阅读真题精读——晨读伴侣》。本书对历年国家大学英语六级考试(CET-6)的仔细阅读部分进行了详尽而精准的分析、翻译和注释,对四六级考生有着事半功倍的效果,对提升整体英语能力也很有帮助。

学习导读:

我们生活在社会之中,我们的成长历程就是接受社会化的过程。在这个过程中,我们慢慢习惯于以社会标签来看待身边的人。比如这个人是教授,那么我们认识他的方式就在于我们对教授的固有印象,可能是富有学识,也有可能是穷酸。总之,你之前对这个词有怎样的认识,当你所认识的人带有着这个标签的时候,你就自然而然地把你对该词的印象代入了此人身上。那么作者,当他是服务员的时候,又和他展露了大学生身份的时候,顾客的反映如何呢,快看看吧。

[Like most people], Ive [long] understood that I will be judged [by my occupation 1], that my profession is a gauge 2(people use to see how smart or talented I am.) [Recently], [however], was disappointed to see that it [also] decides how Im treated [as a person].  
像大多数人一样,我很久以前就明白,人们会根据我的职业来评价我。我的职业就如同一把标尺,人们用它来衡量我的聪明才智。然而,最近我失望地发现,我的职业也决定了别人把我当成什么样的人来对待。

注:1. occupation n. ①占领,占据,占用。例:

The armies finally withdrew after four-year’s occupation of this castle.
占据了这个城堡四年之后,军队忠于撤走了。

②职业,工作。例:

All married women should have some occupation outside the home.
所有的已婚妇女除了做家务之外还应当有自己的职业。

And frankly, not everyone wants to do the kind of occupation that these certificates provide.
坦率地说,不是每个人都想做这些证书允许的那种职业。

[选自:MSN: Boomers face stark choices in bleak economy]

2. gauge n. 标准尺寸,规格,量规,量表。例:

The fuel gauge in the car was broken.
汽车上的油表坏了。

Weekly applications for unemployment benefits are considered a gauge of the pace of layoffs.
每周失业救济的申请次数被认为是裁员速度的标尺。

[选自:MSN: Weekly jobless claims tally down slightly]

[Last year] I left a professional position [as a small-town reporter] and took a job (waiting tables). [As someone paid to serve food to people], I had customers (I suspect 1 theyd [never] say or do to their most casual 2 acquaintances 3.) [One night] a man (talking on his cell phone) waved me away, [then] beckoned 4me [a minute later], [complaining he was ready to order and asking where I’d been].
去年,我辞去了小城记者的专业职位,换了一份餐厅服务员的工作。作为一个靠伺候别人吃饭赚钱的人,有些顾客对我说过一些话、做过一些事——我想,即便是对最泛泛之交的熟人,他们也不会这样吧。某天晚上,一位顾客用手机打电话时,挥手让我走开,一分钟后又以手指示意我回来,抱怨说他已经准备好点菜了,问我怎么走开了。

注:1. suspect vt. 疑心,怀疑,猜想。例:

In the end, I suspect the ultimate beneficiaries would be the same people who always win.
最后,我想最终受益的将总是同一批赢家。

[选自:BOINGBOING: 10 - October - 2006]

The police suspect Gary of the murder.
警察怀疑加里是杀人凶手。

n. 嫌疑犯,可疑分子。例:

The suspects are armed and dangerous.
这些嫌疑犯带有武器,十分危险。

【注】作名词和作动词时的读法不同。

2. casual adj. ①偶然的,碰巧的。例:

a casual meeting 邂逅;

②临时的,非正式的。例:

People didn't yet understand or believe that the virus couldn't be spread by casual contact.
人们认为该病毒能通过日常接触传播。

[选自:WHITEHOUSE: President Obama Signs Ryan White HIV/AIDS Act]

casual worker 临时工   

【参】 causal adj. 原因的,因果关系的

3. acquaintance n. 相识; 熟人, 相识的人; 了解。例:

The relationship between the two individuals concerned might be a casual acquaintance, a brother-sister type of friendship, an acquaintance with romantic overtones, or a passionate involvement.
两人之间的关系可能只是泛泛之交,一种兄妹式的友谊,一种含带爱情成分的结交,或是一种热恋。

The virus arrives in a person’s e-mail box disguised as a reply from an acquaintance.
伪装成为来自熟人的回复,该病毒就到达了某个人的电子邮箱。

[选自:CNN: Largest U.S. electricity producer survives worm]

4. beckon v. 向...示意; 吸引; 召唤; 引诱; 示意; 吸引; 召唤; 引诱。例:

They beckon for me to join their photo opportunity and I smile that smile you   have as a child when first you see snow.
 他们招手呼唤我和他们一起照相,我微笑着,就像小孩子第一次看见下雪那样的微笑。

The romance of the sea beckoned the young sailors.
航海的浪漫故事吸引着年轻水手们。

[选自:21世纪大英汉词典]

I had waited tables [during summers] [in college] and was treated [like a peon 1] [by plenty of people]. But [at 19 years old], I believed I deserved inferior 2treatment [from professional adults]. [Besides], people responded to me [differently] [after I told them I was in college.] Customers would joke that [one day] Id be sitting [at their table], [waiting to be served].
我在大学时暑假做过餐馆服务员,那时很多人把我当苦力看待。但那时我才19岁,我觉得,这些有专业技术的成年人认为我低人一等,也是理所当然的。而且,等我告诉他们我在读大学时,他们对我的态度就不一样了。有顾客开玩笑说,有朝一日我也会坐到他们所坐过的桌子旁,等着别人来伺候我。

注:1. peon n. 劳工; 日工; 散工。例:

He is a Spanish-American farm laborer or unskilled worker
他是美国西班牙裔雇农或劳工

2. inferior adj.下等的,下级的,差的,次的; (be) inferior to 比…差。例:

Mercifully the public has the good sense not to buy the inferior articles more than once.
所幸的是,公众有很好的判断力,不会再次购买质量低劣的商品。

Compared to a wired pair of headphones of the same price they are inferior for music sound quality.
相比于同价位的有线耳机,他们的音乐音质要低劣些。

[选自:ENGADGET: Ask Engadget: Best solution for Bluetooth stereo audio?]

n. 下级,晚辈。例:

The foreman was very condescending to all of his inferiors.
这位领班对他的下属非常谦逊。

[Once I graduated] I took a job [at a community 1 newspaper]. [From my first day], I heard a respectful tone [from everyone] (who called me.) I assumed 2 this was the way (the professional world worked [cordially 3].)  
我一毕业就在一家社区报社找了份工作。我发现,从我工作的第一天起,每一个给我打电话的人说话都是彬彬有礼的。我想,职业领域里的人们就是这样友好地相处的。

注:1. community n. 社区, 共同社会; 社会, 公众; 共同体; 共有。例:

The community in China can be divided into traditional community working unit and nontraditional community sub district office region.   
中国社区可分为传统社区——单位和非传统社区——街道办事处管辖区。

Some in the medical community here are warning that the procedure would be extremely dangerous.
医学界中有些人警告说,该过程极其危险。

[选自:BBC: Women may be given new hope of having a baby]

2. assume v. 以为; 认为; 假定为; 承担。例:

The key is that you must never assume it will never happen to you.
关键是,你千万不要以为它永远不会发生在你头上。

[选自:BBC: NEWS | UK | Preparing for Britain's big freeze]

【辩】assume,suppose;assume强调武断地认定某一事物为真实,而该事物尚未被证实或存在意见分歧:assume that prices will rise(认为价格要上涨);suppose指根据一些证据所得出的准确预测。

3. cordially adv. 热诚地, 友善地, 诚挚地。例:

As his studies, at a previous period of his life, had made him extensively acquainted with the medical science of the day, it was as a physician that he presented himself and as such was cordially received.  
由于他的前半生对当时的医学科学作了广泛的研究,于是他就以所熟悉的医生这——行当为业,出现在这里,并且受到了热烈欢迎。

Russian President Vladimir Putin joked cordially with President George W. Bush.
俄罗斯总统普京亲切地与乔治·布什总统开玩笑。

[选自:NPR: Eyes On Whether APEC Leaders Will Don Aloha Shirts]

I [soon] found out [differently]. I sat several feet [away from an advertising sales representative 1 ] [with a similar name]. Our calls would [often] get mixed up and someone asking for Kristen would be transferred 2 to Christie. The mistake was [immediately] evident. [Perhaps] it was because money was involved 3, but people used a tone [with Kristen] (that they [never] used [with me].)
但没多久我发现情况并非如此。我与一位广告销售代表的座位只相距几尺,他的名字和我的很相近。我们俩的电话经常弄混,找Kristen的电话经常会转给Christie。一旦转错了,很快就能察觉出来。也许是因为牵涉到钱的问题,但是也可能是因为别人绝不会用对Kristen讲话的语气跟我讲话。

注:1. representative n. 代表,代理人;短语:sales representative 销售代表。例:

I wrote a letter to my representative introducing our new products.
我给代理人写了一封信介绍我们的新产品。

However, you also have a right to speak with a company representative in English.
不过,你也有对企业代表用英文发言的权利。

[选自:MSN: Where's that promised in-room Internet connection?]

adj.(of)典型的,有代表性的。例:

This love poem is representative of the author’s best works.
这首爱情诗是这位作家的代表作。

2. transfer n. 迁移, 传递, 移动;v. 转移, 调任, 调转; 转移, 换车。例:

He has succeeded in getting ministers to resign and forced the government to transfer corrupt officials.  
他曾成功地让部长辞职,并迫使政府调任贪官。

[选自:BBC: Anna Hazare: India's pioneering social activist]

【注】重读闭音节,双写尾字母。例:

Jack intends to transfer the property to his daughter.
杰克打算把财产转让给女儿。

Please arrange for the transfer of medical records to your new doctor.
请把医疗记录转给你的新医生。

3. involve v. 包括, 潜心于, 使陷于。例:

These involve managing the cost of development, cost of operations, productivity, and product efficacy in the market.
这涉及管理开发成本、操作成本、生产力,和市场中的产品功效。

Recently released patent filings reveal new ways to control devices that do not involve physical contact.
最近公布的专利申请展示了如何用新的方式来控制不涉及身体接触的设备。

[选自:BBC: Apple and Microsoft file patents for touchless controls]

My job title made people . So it was a shock [to return to the restaurant industry].
我的职业头衔让别人对我礼待有加,因此重回餐馆工作让我吃惊不小。

注:1. courtesy n. 礼貌; 谦恭有礼的言辞; 殷勤。例:

After a few words of courtesy, they got down to business.
    
他们客套了几句,就开始谈正事。

But they are just expecting some common sense and some courtesy in how people interact.
但他们只是想知道一些关于如何与人交往的常识和礼节。

[选自:WHITEHOUSE: Discussing the Economy in Richmond]

It’s no secret that there’s [a lot] [to put up with] [when waiting tables], and [fortunately], much of it can be [easily] forgotten [when you pocket the tips.] The service industry, [by definition 1], exists to cater 2 to others’ needs. [Still], it seemed that many of my customers didn’t get the difference (between server and servant 3).
做餐饮招待的工作得忍耐许多事情,这不是什么秘密,好在小费入账时,所有不愉快的心情都立马烟消云散。服务业,顾名思义,是为了满足他人的需要而存在的。尽管如此,很多顾客似乎没有弄清楚服务人员与仆人之间的区别。

注:1. definition n. 定义, 清晰度, 精确度。例:

Here is the definition, which must be placed within a class definition for it to be compiled.
下面列出的是定义代码,必须将它置于一个类定义里,否则无法编译。

There are loose definitions that tend to change due to there not being a standard definition.
由于没有一个标准的定义,松散的定义往往总在改变。

[选自:ENGADGET: Apple to face antitrust inquiry over iPhone coding restrictions?]

2.cater v. 备办食物; 投合; 满足; 为...提供饮食, 承办的酒席。例:

Our literature and art ought to cater to popular taste.
我们的文艺应该为人民群众所喜闻乐见。

"In addition, we have to cater for their lodging, local transportation and feeding," he said.
“此外,我们要满足他们的住宿,当地交通和食物,”他说。

[选自:BBC: Nigeria]

3. servant n. 仆人, 雇工, 佣人; 事务员; 公务员。例:

If you’re a minister, you are a civil servant, you are an employee of the government.
如果你是一名部长,你就是公务员,是政府雇员。

[选自:CNN: Why Ghonim's passion reignited revolt]

Im [now] applying 1 to graduate school, (which means [someday] Ill return to a profession) (where people need to be nice [to me] [in order to get what they want].) I think I’ll take them [to dinner] [first], and see how they treat someone (whose only job is to serve them.)
目前,我在申请读研究生,这意味着有朝一日我会重返某个专业职位。在这个职位上,人们会为了一己之利而不得不对我以礼相待。我想,到时候,我会先带他们去吃饭,顺便看看他们如何对待那些以服务他人为业的人。

1. apply vt.应用;涂;使专心从事vi.申请;有关联。例:

The new regulations also apply to day care centers, hotels, and other places that provide cribs.
新的规定还适用于日间护理中心,酒店等提供婴儿床的场所。

[选自:CNN: Crib safety standards expanded]