本文选自吴应时主编的《大学英语六级阅读真题精读——晨读伴侣》。本书对历年国家大学英语六级考试(CET-6)的仔细阅读部分进行了详尽而精准的分析、翻译和注释,对四六级考生有着事半功倍的效果,对提升整体英语能力也很有帮助。

学习导读:

环境问题永不过时。农业是第一产业,是事关国家安全的产业,在农业方面选择与环保相结合的材料实在是不偏不倚的选择。英语阅读不需要你有相关方面的知识,所需要的是你能否根据所提供的材料,准确而高效地理解文章的含义,大到中心思想,小到一些观点的表达。文学作品是不适合做考试题的,尤其是对于这种标准化的考试,所以应用文的阅读应该予以重视。

Sustainable 1 development is applied to 2 [just] about everything [from energy to clean water and economic growth], and [as a result] it has become difficult [to question either the basic assumptions 3 behind it or the way the concept is put to use]. This is [especially] true [in agriculture], (where sustainable development is [often] taken  4 measure of progress> [without a proper appreciation of historical and cultural perspectives].)
可持续发展几乎被应用到从能源到清洁水和经济增长等各方面,因此很难对该理念背后的基本前提和应用方式加以质疑。这一点在工业领域尤其如此,因为在该领域中,人们常常在未从历史、文化的角度予以适当考虑的情况下便认为,可持续发展是衡量农业进步的唯一指标。

注:1. sustainable adj. 可以忍受的;足可支撑的;养得起的;可持续的。例:

It promotes sustainable development of small economies and their effective integration into the global economy.
它促进小型经济的可持续发展以及全球经济的合理调整。

[选自:BBC: NEWS | World | Europe | Small county's officials gather for Isle of Man course]

Working together to provide fresh, sustainable food for the community is one of the hot trends in some community organizations.
一起工作,为社区提供新鲜的,可持续的事物,这是一些社区组织热门趋势之一。

sustainable development 可持续发展

sustainable growth 可持续发展

2. be applied to 应用于;被用于,用于,用来表示;施加于。例:

It can be applied to any animal that has a coat with distinct markings.
它可以应用于任何动物,具有独特的标记。

[选自:MSN: New animal barcode scanner earns its stripes]

Can we apply these methods be applied to human? And for how long can they prolong human lifetime? Some scientists presume we can easily live to an age of 100 years old.
但是这些方法是否可以成功地应用到人类身上,以及能延长多少寿命呢?一些科学家认为,至少人类活到100岁可以成为家常便饭。

3. assumption n. 假设,设想  例:

The assumption was the market would move in and take care of the problems.
 假设市场可以进入,并能自动调节问题。

[选自:CNN: News | Asia | Tensions rise between doctors and patients in China]

【词组】on the assumption that 假设

fundamental assumption 基本假定

【词根】assume  承担,假定,采取;装腔作势

assumed  假定的,假装的

assumptive  假定的,设想的

4. sole n. 鞋底,脚底,基础;

adj. 唯一的,仅有的,单独的;(文中此意)

vt. 上鞋底,触底。例:

Practice is the sole criterion of truth.
实践是检验真理的唯一标准。

The sole controller on duty told federal investigators he had failed to notice the crew’s mistake.
唯一在值班的管理员告诉联邦调查员他未能留意到职员们的失误。

[选自:WSJ: Napping at Air-Traffic Control]

[To start with], it is important [to remember that the nature of agriculture has changed [markedly 1] [throughout history], and will continue to do [so]]. 2 Medieval 3 agriculture [in northern Europe] fed, clothed and sheltered a predominantly 4 rural society [with a much lower population density] [than it is [today].] It had minimal effect on biodiversity 5, and any pollution (it caused) was [typically] localized. [In terms of 6 energy use and the nutrients captured in the product] it was [relatively] inefficient.
首先,这一点很重要:我们应该意识到的是,从我那个历史的角度来说,农业的性质已经发生了翻天覆地的变化,而且这一变化还会一直继续。北欧的中世纪农业为以农业为主导的社会提供了衣食住行,但是,当时的人口密度要比今天低得多。农业对生物多样性的影响极小,农业导致的污染基本上都只对局部造成影响。能源利用和产品的营养成分的获取都是相对低效的。

注:1. markedly adv. 明显地,显著地,引人注目地。例:

But it is a town where religious influence has increased markedly in recent years.
但是这是一个近年来受宗教影响越来越显著的小镇。

[选自:BBC: NEWS | Programmes | Crossing Continents | Turkey's silent revolution]

The relations between our two countries have improved markedly in every aspect.
我们两国的关系在各方面都有了显著的发展。

【词根】marked 显著的,有记号的

marking 标志,打分,做记号

2. 注意,这里的宾语从句本可以不予分析,因为这是在状语中作remember的宾语,只不过恰好是一个句子,遂分析之。

3. medieval adj. 中世纪的,原始的,老式的。例:

Like the setting of this tale, the restaurant is located in a medieval monastery.
就像故事情节设定的那样,餐厅位于一个中世纪的修道院。

[选自:BBC: NEWS | Travel | Through the pages of Tuscany ]

4. predominantly adv. 主要地,显著地。例:

In 1965, rioting and looting broke out in the predominantly black Watts section of Los Angeles.
1965年,骚乱和抢劫事件主要在洛杉矶的黑人区发生。

[选自:CNN: Almanac | Sunday, August 11, 1996]

The landscape has remained predominantly rural in appearance.
该风景看上去主要保留了乡村的风貌。

【同】mainly, basically, largely

5. biodiversity n. 生物多样性。例:

An official said the new wind farms would bring environmental benefits, including biodiversity of the sea.
一位官员表示,新的风电场将带来环境效益,包括海洋生物多样性。

[选自:BBC: NEWS | UK | Wales | Giant windfarm plan unveiled]

There should be no national boundaries in biodiversity protection.
在生物多样性保护上,不应该有过境的存在。

【词组】biodiversity protection  生物多样性保护

6. in terms of   

①在...方面,就...来说。文中此意,例:

“It does have an effect in terms of emotional and mental health,” he added.
“它确实对情绪和心理健康有影响,”他补充道。

[选自:BBC: Youth group campaign tackles Somerset school homophobia]

②用...的话,用...字眼,从...角度来讲

③根据,依据

④以...为单位,换算,折合。

In spite of that fact, it turns out that vaccines are one of the best uses of our money in terms of extending the lives of population.
尽管事实如此,结论显示,疫苗是在众多延续人类生命的运用中最佳方式之一。

Contrast this [with 1 farming] [since the start of the industrial revolution]. Competition (from overseas) led farmers [to specialize and increase yields]. [Throughout this period] food became cheaper, safe and more reliable. [However], these changes have [also] led to habitat loss and to diminishing 2 biodiversity.
让我们拿当时的农业与工业革命开始后的农业做一下比较。来自海外的竞争迫使农民转向专业化生产并提高质量。这个工业革命时期,粮食变得更加便宜、更加安全可靠。但是,这种变化导致了动物栖息地的丧失和生物多样性的减少。

注:1. contrast with 与...形成对比;和...相对照。例:

It’s a big contract with Japan, where U.S. exports are still dropping, but China is different.
与日本相比,差别巨大,美国对日本的出口仍然在下降,但中国的情况却截然相反。(美国对中国的出口额在上升)

This is a sharp contrast with how people with depression feel and exacerbates the condition.
抑郁患者感受如何对于加重病情有着强烈的对比。

[选自:BBC: Reverse Sad: Why springtime can be bad for depression sufferers]

2.diminishing v. 减少,递减,衰减(diminish的现在分词);

adj. 逐渐缩小的,衰减的。文中此意,例:

Those differences, however, are diminishing as biotechnology tools and data become more accessible to the masses.
然而,这些差异正因为生物技术工具和数据变得更大众化而缩小。

[选自:FORBES: Citizen Science Takes Off: Could Community Labs Hatch the Next Generation of Bio Innovators?]

【词组】diminishing benefit 效益递减

diminishing increment 增量递减

[What’s more], demand for animal products in developing countries is growing [so] [fast] [that meeting it will require an extra 300 million tons of grain 1 [a year] [by 2050].] Yet the growth (of cities and industry) is reducing the amount of water (available for agriculture) [in many regions].
此外,发展中国家对动物制品的需求上升很快,但要满足这些需求,需要在2050年之前每年增加3亿吨谷物粮食。但是,在许多地区,城市和工业的发展却正在减少可供农业使用的水量。

注:1. grain n. 粮食;颗粒(文中此意);[作物]谷物;纹理;vi. 成谷粒;vt. 使成谷粒。例:

An effort was made to overhaul farm programs in 1996, when grain prices were high.
1996年,提升农业项目付诸实践,当时粮食价格很高。

[选自:WSJ: Farm Lobby Beats Back Assault On Subsidies][overhaul v. 赶上并超过]

grain size 颗粒大小

【派】grainy 颗粒状的;多粒的

graininess 粒状

graining 粒化;使...成颗粒

All this means that agriculture [in the 21st century] will have to be [very] different [from how it was in the 20 th]. This will require radical 1 thinking. [For example], we need to move [away from the idea] {that traditional practices are [inevitably 2] [more] sustainable [than new ones].} We [also] need to abandon the notion {that agriculture can be zero impact 3”.} The key will be to abandon the rather simple and static measures of sustainability, (which centre on the need [to maintain production without increasing damage].)
所有这一切意味着21世纪的农业将和20世纪截然不同。这就需要我们有激进变革的思维方式。比如,我们需要改变以前的想法,不应再坚信传统的方法就一定比新方法更加具有持续性。我们也要放弃“农业可以带来零影响”的看法。关键是要摈弃简单的、一成不变的可持续发展的方法,这些方法的中心点是:一方面必须保证农业生产,而另一方面又不增加对环境的破坏。

注:1. radical adj. 激进的,根本的,彻底的(文中此意);n. 基础;激进分子,[物化]原子团;[数]根数。例:

In the Turkish north of the island, there is a different, more radical solution.
土耳其北部的岛屿,有一个不同也更为激进的解决方案。

[选自:CNN: NEWS | World | Europe | Cyprus facing up to life after 'peak water']

He pushes his ideas to their most radical conclusions.
他将自己的概念,推向最彻底的结论。

【派】radically 根本上,彻底地

radicalism 激进主义

radicalize 激进化

2. inevitably adv. 不可避免地,必然地。例:

“Inevitably as more routes are covered the number of arrests will grow,” Mr Donlon added.
唐隆先生补充说:“不可避免的是随着更多航线的覆盖,逮捕的数量将增加。”

[选自:BBC: NEWS | Politics | UK passes 10,000 border arrests due to screening system]

His wrong doing will inevitably trips itself up.
他干的坏事必然会被揭露。

【同】necessarily ,ineluctably  必然地

3.impact vt. 影响,撞击;冲突;压紧;vi. 冲击,产生影响;n. 影响;效果,碰撞,冲击力。(文中此意)例:

The impact of a repeal of the Affordable Care Act would not be solely financial.
撤销支付医疗法案的影响不仅仅在金融方面。

[选自:CNN: Romney: Repealing health plan will save billions]

The plane is destroyed, a complete wreck: the pilot must have died on impact.
飞机被毁,完全成了一堆残骸:飞行员一定在撞击中丧生了。

【词组】impact of 影响

impact on 影响;对...冲击

environment impact  环境冲击

[Instead] we need a more dynamic interpretation 1, one (that looks at the pros 2 and cons (of all the various way) (land is used.)) There are [many] (different) ways [to measure agricultural performance] [besides food yield]: {energy use, environmental costs, water purity, carbon foot print and biodiversity}. It is clear, ^for example^, that the carbon (of transporting tomatoes) [from Spain to the UK] is less [than that of producing them in the UK] [with additional heating and lighting]. But we do not know whether lower carbon footprints will [always] be better [for biodiversity].
相反,我们需要一种更加灵活的理解——同时看到土地所有使用方式的正反两面。除了粮食产量,还可以使用很多不同的方法来衡量农业表现:能源消耗、环境成本、水的纯净性、碳排放量(“碳足迹”)和生物多样性。比如,在英国本土生产土豆需要额外的保暖采光措施,因此所消耗的碳成本高,但是,我们并不知道降低碳排放是否一定能增加生物多样性。

注:1. interpretation n. 解释,翻译,演出。例:

But what most travelers don't realize is that this is just one interpretation of Turkish food.
但大多数旅行者没有意识到的是,这只是土耳其食物的一种解释。

[选自:CNN: News | Travel |Istanbul's best Turkish restaurants]

【词组】simultaneous interpretation 同声传译

oral interpretation 口译

2. pro n.赞成者,赞成的意见。例:

Let’s discuss the pros and cons of each approach.
让我们从正反两个方面讨论一下每一个方法。

What is crucial is 1 recognizing that sustainable agriculture is not just about sustainable food production.
关键在于,我们必须意识到,可持续发展的农业不仅仅是可持续粮食的生产。

注:1. What is crucial is…经典句型,关键在于。例:

“What is crucial is the character and commitment of the candidate,” he says.
他说道:“关键在于候选人的人格与奉献。”

[选自:CNN: TESTING TIMES: With an election near, Singapore's young voters question their goals]