作者:沪江英语|2013年12月07日 20:15

Part I Writing(30 minutes)
Direcljions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay commenting on the remark “The greatest use of Use is to spend it for something that will outlast it.”You can give examples to illustrate your point and then explain what you will do to make your life more meaningful.You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200words

PartII Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Section A

Directions:In this section,you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversation.At the end ofeach conversation,one or more questions will be asked about what was said.Both tluconversation and the questions will be spoken only once.After each question there will be apause.During the pause,you must read thefour choices marked A.,B.,C.and D.,and
decide which is the best answer.Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1with a single line through the centre.
1.A. Dr.Smith’s waiting room,isn’t tidy.
B.Dr.Smith enjoys reading magazines.
C.Dr.Smith has left a good impression on her.
D.Dr.Smith may not be a good choice.
2.A. The man will rent the apartment when it is available.
B.The man made a bargain with the landlady over the rent.
C.The man insists on having a look at the apartment first.
D.The man is not fully satisfied with the apartment.
3.A.packing up to go abroad.
B.Brushing up on her English.
C.Drawing up a plan for her English course.
D.Applying for a visa to the United States.
4.A.lHe is anxious to find a cure for his high blood pressure.
B.He doesn’t think high blood pressure is a problem for him.
C.Ite was not aware of his illness until diagnosed with it.
D.lHe did not take the symptoms of his illness seriously.
5.A.To investigate the causes of AIDS.
B.To raise money for AIDS patients.
C.To rally support for AIDS victims in Africa.
D. To draw attention to the spread of AIDS in Asia.
6.A.l t has a very long history.
B.l t is a private institution.
C.It was founded by Thomas Jefferson.
D.It stresses the comprehensive study of nature.
7.A.Tey can’t fit into the machine.
B.They have not been delivered yet.
C.They were sent to the wrong address.
D.They were found to be of the wrong type.
8.A.1I?he food served in the cafeteria usually lacks variety.
B.The cafeteria sometimes provides rate food for the students.
C.The students find the service in the cafeteria satisfactory.
D.The cafeteria tries hard to cater to the students,needs.
conversation One
Questt l ms 9 to12 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9.A.He picked up some apples in his yard.
B.He cut some branches off the apple tree.
C.He quarreled with his neighbor over the fence.
D.He cleaned up all the garbage in the woman’s yard.
10. A. Trim the apple trees in her yard.
B. Pick up the apples that fell in her yard.
C. Take the garbage to the curb for her.
D. Remove the branches from her yard.
11. A. File a lawsuit against the man.
B. Ask the man for compensation.
C. Have the man's apple tree cut down.
D. Throw garbage into the man's yard.
12. A. He was ready to make a concession.
B. He was not prepared to go to court.
C. He was not intimidated.
D. He was a bit concerned.
Conversation Two
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
13. A. Bad weather.
B. Human error.
C. Breakdown of the engines.
D. Failure of the communications system.
14. A. Two thousand feet.
B. Twelve thousand feet.
C. Twenty thousand feet.
D. Twenty-two thousand feet.
15. A. Accurate communication is of utmost importance.
B. Pilots should be able to speak several foreign languages.
C. Air controllers should keep a close watch on the weather.
D. Cooperation between pilots and air controllers is essential.
Section B
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hearsome questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you heara question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A., B., C. andD ). Then mark the corresponding letter,on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through thecentre.
Passage One
Questions 16 to 19 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. A. His father caught a serious disease.
B. His mother passed away.
C. His mother left him to marry a rich businessman.
D. His father took to drinking.
17. A. He disliked being disciplined.
B. He was expelled by the university.
C. He couldn't pay his gambling debts.
D. He enjoyed working for a magazine.
18. A. His poems are heavily influenced by French writers.
B. His stories are mainly set in the State of Virginia.
C. His work is difficult to read.
D. His language is not refmed.
19. A. He grieved to death over the loss of his wife.
B. He committed suicide for unknown reasons.
C. He was shot dead at the age of 40.
D. He died of heavy drinking.
Passage Two
Questions 20 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
20. A. Women.
B. Prisoners.
C. Manual workers.
D. School age children.
21. A. He taught his students how to pronounce the letters first.
B. He matched the letters with the sounds familiar to the learners.
C. He showed the learners how to combine the letters into simple words.
D. He divided the letters into groups according to the way they are written.
22. A. It can help people to become literate within a short time.
B. It was originally designed for teaching the English language.
C. It enables the learners to master a language within three months.
D. It is effective in teaching any alphabetical language to Brazilians.
Passage Three
Questions23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
23. A. The crop's blooming period is delayed.
B. The roots of crops are cut off.
C. The topsoil is seriously damaged.
D. The growth of weeds is accelerated.
24. A. It's a new way of applying chemical fertilizer.
B. It's an improved method of harvesting crops.
C. It's a creative technique for saving labor.
D. It's a farming process limiting the use of ploughs.
25. A. In areas with few weeds and unwanted plants.
B. In areas with a severe shortage of water.
C. In areas lacking in chemical fertilizer.
D. In areas dependent on imported food.
Section C
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the firsttime, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for thesecond time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard.Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you havewritten.
Adults are getting smarter about how smart babies are. Not long ago, researchers learned that4-day-old could understand 26______and subtraction. Now, British research psychologist Graham Schaferhas discovered that infants can learn words for uncommon things long before they can speak. He foundthat 9-month-old infants could be taught, through repeated show-and-tell, to 27______the names of objectsthat were foreign to them, a result that 28______in some ways the received wisdom that, apart from learningto29______ things common to their dally lives, children don't begin to build vocabulary until well into theirsecond year. "It's no 30______that children learn words, but the words they tend to know are words linkedto 31______situations in the home," explains Schafer. "This is the first demonstration that we can choosewhat words the children will learn and that they can respond to them with an unfamiliar voice 32______in anunfamiliar setting. "
Figuring out how humans acquire language may 33______why some children learn to read and writelater than others, Schafer says, and could lead to better treatments for developmental problems. What'smore, the study of language 34______offers direct insight into how humans learn. "Language is a test casefor human cognitive development," says Schafer. But parents eager to teach their infants should takenote : even without being taught new words, a control group 35______the other infants within a few months."This is not about advancing development," he says. "It's just about what children can do at an earlierage than what educators have often thought. "

Part Ill Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word foreach blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read thepassage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identifiedby a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with asingle line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more thanonce.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
Cell phones provide instant access to people. They are creating a major 36______ in the socialexperiences of both children and adolescents. In one recent U.S. survey, about haft the teens polled saidthat their cell phone had 37______ their commtmication with friends. Almost all said that their cell phone was the way they stayed in touch with peers, one-third had used the cell phone to help a peer in need, andabout 80% said the phone made them feel safer. Teenagers in Australia,38______, said that their mobilephones provided numerous benefits and were an 39______part of their lives; some were so 40______to theirphones that the researchers considered it an addiction. In Japan, too, researchers are concerned aboutcell phone addiction. Researchers in one study in Tokyo found that more than half of junior high schoolstudents used their phones to exchange e-mails with schoolmates more than 10 times a day.
Cell phones 41______social connections with peers across time and space. They allow young people toexchange moment-by-moment experiences in their daily lives with special partners and thus to have a more42______sense of connection with friends. Cell phones also can 43______social tolerance because they reducechildren's interactions with others who are different from them. In addition to connecting peers, cellphones connect children and parents. Researchers studying teenagers in Israel concluded that, in that44______environment, mobile phones were regarded as "security objects" in parent-teen relationships--important because they provided the possibility of 45______and communication at all times.
A. affiliated I) hazardous
B. attached J) improved
C. contact K) instantaneous
D. contend L) intrinsic
E) continuous M) relatively
F) diminish N) shift
G) endurance O) similarly
H) foster
Section B
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Eachstatement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraphfrom which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Eachparagraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the correspondingletter on Answer Sheet 2.
Waste Not, Want Not
Feeding the 9 Billion: The Tragedy of Waste
[A] By 2075, the United Nations' mid-range projection for global population is about 9.5 billion. Thismeans that there could be an extra three billion mouths to feed by the end of the century, a period inwhich substantial changes are anticipated in the wealth, calorie intake and dietary preferences ofpeople in developing countries across the world. Such a projection presents mankind with wide-ranging social, economic, environmental and political issues that need to be addressed today toensure a sustainable future for all. One key issue is how to produce more food in a world of finiteresources.
[B] Today, we produce about four billion metric tonnes of food per year. Yet due to poor practices inharvesting, storage and transportation, as well as market and consumer wastage, it is estimated that30-50% of all food produced never reaches a human stomach. Furthermore, this figure does notreflect the fact that large amounts of land, energy, fertilisers and water have also been lost in theproduction of foodstuffs which simply end up as waste. This level of wastage is a tragedy that cannotcontinue if we are to succeed in the challenge of sustainably meeting our future food demands.
Where Food Waste Happens
[C] In 2010, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers identified throe principal emerging population groups acrossthe world, based on characteristics associated with their current and projected stage of economic development.
~ Fully developed, mature, post-industrial societies, such as those in Europe, characterised by stable ordeclining populations which are increasing in age.
~ Late-stage developing nations that are currently industrialising rapidly, for example China, which willexperience declining rates of population growth, coupled with increasing affluence (富裕)and age profile.
~ Newly developing countries that are beginning to industrialise, primarily in Africa, with high to very high population growth rates, and characterised by a predominantly young age profile.
[D] Each group over the coming decades will need to address different issues surrounding food production, storage
and transportation, as well as consumer expectations, if we are to continue to feed all our people.
[E] In less-devel0ped countries, such as those of sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia, wastage tends to occurprimarily at the farmer-producer end of the supply chain. Inefficient harvesting, inadequate localtransportation and poor infrastructure (基础设施) mean that produce is frequently handled inappropriatelyand stored under unsuitable farm site conditions.
[F] In mature, fully developed countries such as the UK, more,efficient farming practices and better transport,storage and processing facilities ensure that a larger proportion of the food produced reaches markets andconsumers. However, characteristics associated with modem consumer culture mean produce is often wastedthrough retail and customer behaviour.
[G] Major supermarkets, in meeting consumer expectations, will often reject entire crops of perfectly edible fruitand vegetables at the farm because they do not meet exacting marketing standards for their physicalcharacteristics, such as size and appearance.
[H] Of the produce that does appear in the supermarket, commonly used sales promotions frequently encouragecustomers to purchase excessive quantities which, in the case of perishable foodstuffs, inevitably generatewastage in the home. Overall between 30% and 50% of what has been bought in developed countries isthrown away by the purchaser.
Better Use of Our Finite Resources
[I] Wasting food means losing not only life-supporting nutrition but also precious resources, including land,water and energy. As a global society, therefore, tackling food waste will help contribute towards addressinga number of key resource issues.
[J] Land Usage: Over the last five decades, improved farming techniques and technologies have helped tosignificantly increase crop yields along with a 12% expansion of farmed land use. However, a further increasein farming area without impacting unfavourably on what remains of the world's natural ecosystems appearsunlikely. The challenge is that an increase in animal-based production will require more land and resources, aslivestock (牲畜) fanning demands extensive land use.
[K] Water Usage: Over the past century, human use of fresh water has increased at more than double the rate ofpopulation growth. Currently about 3.8 trillion m3 of water is used by humans per year. About 70% of this isconsumed by the global agriculture sector, and the level of use will continue to rise over the coming decades.
[L] Better irrigation can dram.atically improve crop yield and about 40% of the world's food supply is currentlyderived from irrigated land. However, water used in irrigation is often sourced unsustainably. In processingfoods after the agricultural stage, there are large additional uses of water that need to be tackled in a world ofgrowing demand. This is particularly crucial in the case of meat production, where beef uses about 50 timesmore water than vegetables. In the future, more effective washing techniques, management procedures, andrecycling and purification of water will be needed to reduce wastage.
[M] Energy Usage: Energy is an essential resource across the entire food production cycle, with estimates showingan average of 7-10 calories of input being required in the production of one calorie of food. This variesdramatically depending on crop, from three calories for plant crops to 35 calories in the production of beef.Since much of this energy comes from the utilisation of fossil fuels, wastage of food potentially contributes tounnecessary global warming as well as inefficient resource utilisation.
[N] In the modern industrialised agricultural process--which developing nations are moving towards in order toincrease future yields--energy usage in the making and application of fertilisers and pesticides represents thesingle biggest component. Wheat production takes 50% of its energy input for these two items alone. Indeed,on a global scale, fertiliser manufacturing consumes about 3-5% of the world's annual natural gas supply.With production anticipated to increase by 25% between now and 2030, sustainable energy sourcing willbecome an increasingly major issue. Energy to power machinery, both on the farm and in the storage andprocessing facilities, adds to the energy total, which currently represents about 3.1% of annual global energyconsumption.
[O] Rising population combined with improved nutrition standards and shifting dietary preferences will exertpressure for increases in global food supply. Engineers, scientists and agriculturalists have the knowledge, tools and systems that will assist in achieving productivity increases. However, pressure will grow on finiteresources of land, energy and water. The potential to provide 60-100% more food by simply eliminatinglosses, while simultaneously freeing up land, energy and water resources for other uses, is an:opportunity thatshould not be ignored. In order to begin tackling the challenge, the Institution recommends that:
~ The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation work with the international engineering community to ensuregovernments of developed nations put in place programmes that transfer engineering knowledge, designknow-how, and suitable technology to newly developing countries. This will help improve producehandling in the harvest, and immediate post-harvest stages of food production.
~ Governments of rapidly developing countries incorporate waste minimisation thinking into the transportinfrastructure and storage facilities currently being planned, engineered and built.
~ Governments in developed nations devise and implement policy that changes consumer expectations. Theseshould discourage retailers from wasteful practices that lead to the rejection of food on the basis of cosmeticcharacteristics, and losses in the home due to excessive purchasing by consumers.
46. Elimination of waste alone can potentially provide over sixty percent more food for the growing world population.
47. The production and application of fertilisers and pesticides account for the largest part of energy use in the modem industrialised agricultural process.
48. Consumers in developed countries throw away nearly half of their food purchases because they tend to buy in excessive quantities.
49. It is recommended that engineering knowledge and suitable technology in developed countries be introduced to developing .countries to improve produce handling in the harvest.
50. The predicted global population growth means that, ways have to be found to produce more food with finite resources.
51. A further expansion of farming area will adversely impact on the world's natural ecosystems.
52. Perfectly eatable fruit and vegetable crops often fail to reach supermarkets due to their size or physical appearance.
53. Poor practices in harvesting, storage and transportation have resulted in a waste of much of the food we produce and thus a waste of land and resources.
54. Food waste in less-developed countries happens mainly at the producers' end.55. Beef consumes far more water to produce than vegetables.
Section C
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions orunfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A., B., C. andD ). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
Call it the "learning paradox" : the more you struggle and even fail while you're trying to learn new
information, the better you're likely to recall and apply that information later.
The learning paradox is at the heart of "productive failure," a phenomenon identified by researcherManu Kapur. Kapur points out that while the model adopted by many teachers when introducing studentsto new knowledge--providing lots of structure and guidance.early on, until the student show that theycan do it on their own--makes intuitive sense, it may not be the best way to promote learning. Rather, it'sbetter to let the learners wrestle (较劲) with the material on their own for a while, refraining from givingthem any assistance at the start. In a paper published recently, Kapur applied the principle of productivefailure to mathematical problem solving in three schools.
With one group of students, the teacher provided strong"scaffolding"--instructional support--andfeedback. With the teacher's help, these pupils were able to find the answers to their set of problems,Meanwhile, a second group was directed to solve the same problems by collaborating with one another,without any prompts from their instructor. These students weren't able to complete the problems correctly. But in the course of trying to do so, they generated a lot of ideas about the nature of theproblems and about what potential solutions would look like. And when the two groups were tested onwhat they'd learned, the second group "significantly outperformed" the first.
The apparent struggles of the floundering (挣扎的) group have what Kapur calls a "hidden efficacy":they lead people to understand the deep structure of problems, not simply their correct solutions. Whenthese students encounter a new problem of the same type on a test, they're able to transfer the knowledgethey've gathered more effectively than those who were the passive recipients of someone else's expertise.In the real world, problems rarely come neatly packaged, so being able to discern their deep structureis key. But, Kapur notes, none of us like to fail, no matter how often Silicon Valley entrepreneurs praisethe beneficial effects of an idea that fails or a start-up company that crashes and burns. So we need to"design for productive failure" by building it into the learning process. Kapur has identified threeconditions that promote this kind of beneficial struggle. First, choose problems to work on that "challengebut do not frustrate. " Second, provide learners with opportunities to explain and elaborate on whatthey're doing. Third, give learners the chance to compare and contrast good and bad solutions to theproblems. And to those students who protest this tough-love teaching style: you'll thank me later.
56. Why does the author call the learning process a paradox?
A. Pains do not necessarily lead to gains.
B. What is learned is rarely applicable in life.
C. Failure more often than not breeds success.
D. The more is taught, the less is learnt.
57. What does Kaput disapprove of in teaching?
A. Asking students to find and solve problems on their own.
B. Developing students' ability to apply what they learn.
C. Giving students detailed guidance and instruction.
D. Allowing students a free hand in problem solving.
58. What do people tend to think of providing strong "scaffolding" in teaching?
A. It will make teaching easier.
B. It is a sensible way of teaching.
C. It can motivate average students.
D. It will enhance students' confidence.
59. What kind of problem should be given to students to solve according to Kapur?
A. It should be able to encourage collaborative learning.
B. It should be easy enough so as not to frustrate students.
C. It should be solvable by average students with ease.
D. It should be difficult enough but still within their reach.
60. What can be expected of "this tough-love teaching style" ( Line 8, Para.5) ?
A. Students will be grateful in the long run.
B. Teachers will meet with a lot of resistance.
C. Parents will think it too harsh on their kids.
D. It may not be able to yield the desired results.
Passage Two
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
Vernon Bowman, a 75-year-old farmer from rural Indiana, did something that got him sued. Heplanted soybeans (大豆) sold as cattle feed. But Monsanto, the agricultural giant, insists it has a patenton the kind of genetically modified seeds Bowman used and that the patent continues to all of theprogeny (后代) of those seeds.
Have we really gotten to the point that planting a seed can lead to a high-stakes Supreme Court patentlawsuit? We have, and that case is Bowman vs. Monsanto, which is being argued on Tuesday.Monsanto's critics have attacked the company for its "merciless legal battles against small farmers," andthey are hoping this will be the case that puts it in its place. They are also hoping the court's ruling willrein in patent law, which is increasingly being used to claim new life forms as private property.
Monsanto and its supporters, not surprisingly, see the case very differently. They argue that when acompany like Monsanto goes to great expense to create a valuable new genetically modified seed, it mustbe able to protect its property interests. If farmers like Bowman are able to use these seeds without payingthe designated fee, it will remove the incentives for companies like Monsanto to innovate.
Monsanto accused Bowman of patent infringement and won an $ 84,456 damage award. Rather thanpay up or work out a settlement, Bowman decided to appeal--all the way to the Supreme Court. He said"Monsanto should not be able, just because they've got billions of dollars to spend on legal fees, to try to terrify farmers into obeying their agreements by massive force and threats. "
The central issue in the case is whether patent rights to living things extend to the progeny of thosethings. Monsanto argues that its patents extend to later generations. But Bowman's supporters argue thatMonsanto is trying to expand the scope of patents in ways that would enrich big corporations and hurtsmall farmers. They say that ff Monsanto wins, the impact will extend far beyond agriculture--locking upproperty rights in an array of important areas. Knowledge Ecology International contends that the SupremeCourt's ruling could have "profound effects" on other biotech industries.
If this were a Hollywood movie, the courageous old Indiana farmer would beat the profit-mindedcorporation before the credits rolled. But this is a real-life argument before a Supreme Court that has awell-earned reputation for looking out for the interests of large corporations. This case gives the court anopportunity to rein in the growing use of patents to protect genetically engineered crops and other lifeforms--but the court may well use it to give this trend a powerful new endorsement.
61. Why did Vernon Bowman get sued?
A. He used genetically modified seeds to feed his cattle.
B. He planted soybeans without paying for the patent.
C. He made a profit out of Monsanto's commercial secrets.
D. He obtained Monsanto's patented seeds by illegal means.
62. What are Monsanto's critics hoping the Supreme Court will do?
A. Allow small farmers to grow genetically modified soybeans.
B. Punish Monsanto for infringing on small farmers' interests.
C. Rule against Monsanto's excessive extension of its patent rights.
D. Abolish the patent law concerning genetically engineered seeds.
63. What is the argunent of Monsanto and its supporters?
A. Patent rights should be protected to encourage innovation.
B. Bowman cannot plant the seeds without Monsanto's consent.
C. Monsanto has the right to recover the costs of its patented seeds.
D. Patent law on genetically modified seeds should not be challenged.
64. What is the key issue in the Bowman vs. Monsanto case?
A. Whether patent for seeds is harmful to agricultural production.
B. Whether the biotech industry should take priority over agriculture.
C. Whether measures should be introduced to protect small farmers.
D. Whether patent for living things applies to their later generations.
65. What do we learn from the last paragraph?
A. Hollywood movies usually have an unexpected, dramatic impact on real-life arguments.
B. The Supreme Court will try to change its reputation for supporting large corporations.
C. The Supreme Court is likely to persuade the parties concerned to work out a settlement.
D. The ruling would be in Bowman's favor if the case were argued in a Hollywood movie.

Part IV Translation (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese. into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.


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