Will went in front, his shaggy little garron picking the way carefully through the undergrowth.A light snow had fallen the night before, andthere were stones and roots and hidden sinks lying just under its crust, waiting for the careless and the unwary. Ser Waymar Royce came next, his great black destrier snorting impatiently. The warhorse was the wrong mount for ranging, but try and tell that to the lordling. Gared brought up the rear. The old man-at-arms muttered to himself as he rode.
威尔打前锋,骑着他那匹长毛的马,在矮树丛里小小心翼翼地探路。昨夜下了一场小雪,这会儿树丛底下有许多石块、树根和水洼,一不小心就会摔倒。威玛·罗伊斯爵士跟在后面,他那匹高壮骏马不耐烦地吐着气。巡逻任务最不适合骑战马,但贵族子弟哪听得进去?老兵盖瑞殿后,一路低声喃喃自语。

Will went in front, his shaggy little garron picking the way carefully through the undergrowth.

这一句话主语是Will,谓语是went,逗号后跟着的his shaggy little garron picking …则是另一个主语。这其实是两句话:Will went in front. His shaggy little garron picked the way carefully. 从句子结构上来说,这两句本来没有联系,而且是不同的主语,但两句话是有逻辑关系的。把其中一个句子的动词用分词形式来作为另外一个状语,这个动作的发出(或承受)的“主语”就是独立主格。独立主格结构不能使用任何连接词。而且独立主格不是独立的句子,而是“格”。这样说比较晦涩难懂,我们来看个例子。

John goes into his house, followed by his dog.

John goes into his house, his dog following him.

前一句是分词作伴随状语,而后一句his dog 则是独立主格了。

但是并不是说独立主格没有过去分词(表过去、表被动、表伴随)的情况:

All the work done, you can have a rest.

【阿天提示】其实很多用法需要自己去体会,会使用就好,并不一定要能懂学术讲法。

语法实用教学哪家强?还不快去看看周立老师的8天语法快车道。轻松解决语法困扰,英语顺畅用起来。http://www.cctalk.com/course/151962346019/

there were stones and roots and hidden sinks lying just under its crust,

这里是使用的there be 句型,指这里有。需要注意的是,“这里有”的固定搭配是there be,不能根据汉语翻译成there have/has——根本没有这个用法。

看看这个句子,The Forbidden City is there.对句子进行倒装就变成了There is the Forbidden City. 为甚要倒装呢?我们汉语也说: “球,进了!”,这个时候你要是说“进球了!” 也是没错的,但是语气没有那么强。久而久之,就形成了there be 句型。所以,物体是没有there和have/ has (拥有)连用的用法的。这个时候如果要使用have/has 就要用代词they/it, 变成they have … / it has …。而there be 句型其实是刷存在感的。

这句话我们还可以分解:

There were stones and roots and hidden sinks.

The stones, roots and hidden sinks lay just under its crust.

这两句话,第一句的宾语和第二句的主语重合。英语本身就是“标记性”的语言,对于内部结构的简化提升,就是英语从低级向高级发展的过程。由于英语本身表述的东西要求准确精细,说话重复时,就有了简化提升。

语法还昏?

【阿天提示】请看上面的链接,这些内容的实用讲解尽在周立老师的课程中。

crust, 这里是指雪层。它还可以指如面包或者披萨外的那层酥皮或者是某个物体表面的硬薄外层。也可以指地壳。

unwary,不谨慎的。wary,谨慎小心的。注意是因为认为有可能会遇险,而提高警惕。而careful,则是提醒避免犯错。be wary of (doing) sth., 提心吊胆,如履薄冰地做某事,I’m wary of driving in this fog. 你还可以提醒别人,Keep a wary eye on that guy. I don’t trust him.

snort, 动词,用鼻子发出哼声。最近有个孩子画了一幅老爸吃白糖的画,结果他老爸就被请到局子里了,就是因为他是snorting cocaine。抽鼻子用鼻子吸入其实是sniff;擤鼻子blow someone’s nose。Stop sniffing and blow your nose. ╰ひ╯, 呃,把鼻涕抽进去,抽得太猛不就… 那画面太美,不敢直视。

mount, 这里是名词,座驾。

rear, 后部,和front 相对。看《头文字D 》里老出现说某个车子是FR的,其实就是指Front engine, Rear drive. 发动机在前,后轮驱动。就是前置后驱。

mutter, 嘀咕,咕哝,私下小声说。

声明:本文系阿天授权沪江英语独家发布,严禁转载。中文翻译选自重庆出版社屈畅的版本,讲解为阿天原创作品。