一、何谓英语倒装句

为了强调、突出等语的目的而颠倒原有语序的句式叫做倒装句。由于语法结构的要求,或是由于修辞的需要,往往要改变句子的自然语序,把一些本应置于主语之后的句子成分提到主语之前,而且倒装语序大多都用于强调。

二、英语倒装句的分类

常用的倒装句为完全倒装部分倒装特殊从句倒装比较从句倒装

1、完全倒装

完全倒桩,又称"全部倒装",是指将句子中的谓语全部置于主语之前,通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。

(1) 谓语+主语+……There be/appear/come/remain+主语(+地点或时间状语)
e.g. There appeared to be a woman in red.那里有个穿红衣服的女人。

(2) 副词+谓语动词+名词主语+表示方向的副词,如 out, down, in, up, away, on
e.g. Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.

若开头用词为:here, there, now, thus, hence, then也会倒装
e.g. Here comes the taxi.

(3) 过去分词或现在分词+be的各种形式+主语+……
e.g. Scattered on the floor were several books and magazines.

2、部分倒装

部分倒装,又称半倒装句,指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装至主语之前,而谓语动词无变化。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前。

(1) 下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装 :
never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in no way, no longer, no less, no more, no sooner than, under no circumstances, in vain, still less。
e.g. Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on. Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.

(2) 以only修饰状语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装
e.g. Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.

(3) 以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装
倒装副词/短语:often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point,many a time
e.g. So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

3、特殊从句的倒装

(1)让步从句的倒装

(i) as 引导让步状语从句:必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。
e.g. Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.

(ii) 出现在句型be+主语+其他中。
e.g. Our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic. The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly. Come what may, I’ll be on your side.

4、比较从句的倒装
as, than 引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。
例如: Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce. Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.

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