tummy Tammy Tommy Betty tatami(Japanese word meaning 'mat')
In Unit Eight we looked at the differences between and (bat/bet). In this Unit, we will review and practice those sounds as well as contrasting them with three others: . The first of these two are common English sounds found in words such as but and caught (some English dialects will distinguish the difference between caught and cot; this workbook does not). The third one, /a/, is usually found in borrowed words from other languages such as Paris (/pari/) and Japanese words like sake (rice wine /sake/) (English does have /a/, but it is found in the diphthong /ay/ or ). North American native-English speakers will often substitute other vowels for /a/. For example, the Japanese city of Yokohama might be pronounced ; sayonara (Japanese for 'goodbye') ;and Paris .
在第八单元（请点击查看）我们区分了和的区别。在本单元，我们将复习回顾这两个音，另外还会和其他的三个音相比较。这三个音中前两个是很常见的，可以在but和caught这样的单词中碰到（一些英语发言中会区分caught和cot的区别，本材料中不作区别）。第三个音/a/通常在从其他语言中借来的外来语中出现，比如Paris (/pari/)和日语词，表示米酒的sake/sake/（英语中没有/a/，但是双音节中会有的，比如/ay/或/aI/中）。北美地区英语为母语的人经常将/a/标记成其他元音，比如日本城市横滨（Yokohama），可能会被读成；日语中表示“再见”的sayonara，就被标记成，还有巴黎Paris 。
Most languages have the /a/ vowel, and often a non-native speaker of English will substitute it for . So, an English learner might say the word batter as , but a native speaker. This difference usually doesn't cause any problems in comprehension for the listener unless there is a confusion with another word such as butter . In other words, a learner should realize that there might be some confusion between words such as bat, but, and bought if care is not taken. In the vowel chart below, the proximity of these vowels can be seen: