吉 格梅·廷莱1952年出生 ，1974年开始任不丹政府公职，于1998年及2003年皆任首相，曾担任外交部长及内政文化部长。2008年，不丹王国第一次实施民主选举，其所属的 和平繁荣党大获全胜，廷莱成为不丹民主化之后首任总理。其所领导的政府，以国家幸福力（GNH）为核心施政方针，以缓解贫穷为中心要务，力求公平正义的成 长。
KEYNOTE SPEECH ON “HAPPINESS: CREATING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE”
Master Hung Chi-Sung,
Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen,
It is indeed a matter of great honour for me to be invited by Culture 21 and Shanghai Wingsbook Company to address this august forum of middle and high level managers from across China on a very profound and crucially important topic entitled “Happiness: Creating a Sustainable Future”. I hope I can do justice to the rare honour you have bestowed upon me by sharing Bhutan’s experiences of pursuing a path of development which is based on the philosophy and principles of Gross National Happiness which enshrines sustainable, holistic and inclusive growth with the ultimate aim of creating a sustainable future for our citizens and indeed the mankind.
Today, Bhutan’s status in the world of geopolitics may be perceived as insignificant apart from being strategically located between two emerging superpowers, India and China. In a world that is reigned supreme by economic interests and power play, Bhutan’s fledgling economy garners scant attention. However, Bhutan is not an isolated place but a part of the world, and the problems of the world seem to be general. In this respect, Bhutan has positioned itself in a much better light than many developing countries. Its political stability, the historic and peaceful transition from Monarchy to democracy, the unique development philosophy of Gross National Happiness (GNH) and its history of cultural isolationism and survival are significant hallmarks that have intrigued the world.
In many ways, Bhutan is better placed than most countries in terms of clean air, fresh water, abundant forest cover, and above all, hydro-power. Although Bhutan is a carbon negative country, we have not been spared from the effects of global climate change. The snow-covered glacial mountains of Bhutan have begun to look bare and exposed for the first time in our history.
The fact is the kind of development we have embraced particularly in the last one century has not been of the kind that has advanced human civilization. It has not refined human behaviour by employing the finer senses. Ours is a world driven by the greed of a society obsessed with an excessive desire to consume. The insatiable nature of this obsession is evident in the way we have adopted the GDP-based development model that promotes a limitless economic growth and expansion as the means to human well-being and satisfaction. It is evident in the way we have employed our genius to develop an amazing array of science and technology to exploit and abuse our planet. We need to change and mend our ways. We need to begin by acknowledging the truth that life as we live it is propelling us toward self-destruction in more ways than one. We need to open our eyes to the high price of social dislocation and environmental devastation that has been paid to achieve GDP targets. Let us accept that this powerfully dominant indicator is based on the seriously flawed belief that unlimited economic growth is necessary to promote human well-being. We have willfully deluded ourselves by misusing GDP which was designed only to measure the volume of goods and services transacted in the market at a given time. We desperately need to arrive at a true understanding of the meaning of wealth or prosperity in relation to human well- being, and develop a more holistic model and indicator to set human society on a sustainable path.
It is, therefore, timely, indeed overdue, to reflect on sustainable development, as sustainable development and climate change are inextricably linked in an organic way. In this regard, Bhutan is asking itself the question that everyone must ask: how can economic growth be combined with environmental sustainability – a question that it has answered in part through a massive effort to protect the country’s vast forest cover and its unique biodiversity. Bhutan is asking how it can preserve its traditional society and foster its unique cultural heritage. And, it is also asking how individuals can maintain their psychological stability in an era of rapid change, marked by urbanization and an onslaught of global communication in a society that had no television until little more than a decade ago.
The central issue in sustainable development is how can we reduce production and consumption levels to stay within the limits of biologically productive capacity of the planet? How can we ensure that in so doing, we will not lower or reverse the level of our well- being? This begs for an alternative development model based on a correct notion of what constitutes human well-being. As we reflect on this, we need to be mindfully clear that the planet simply does not have the capacity to sustain life for much longer if developing countries, with their larger populations, were to tread the same path that brought the developed countries its level of affluence and lifestyle. We deprive future generations the moment resources are harvested and used beyond the capability of regeneration. The idea is that we are drawing on future resources, borrowing from future generations. But we are not borrowing, we are depriving.