What determines the kind of person you are? What factors make you more or less bold, intelligent, or able to read a map? All of these are influenced by the interaction of your genes and the environment in which you were  __1__. The study of how genes and environment interact to influence __2__ activity is known as behavioral genetics. Behavioral genetics has made important __3__ to the biological revolution, providing information about the extent to which biology influences mind, brain and behavior.

Any research that suggests that __4__ to perform certain behaviors are based in biology is controversial. Who wants to be told that there are limitations to what you can __5__ based on something that is beyond your control, such as your genes? It is easy to accept that genes control physical characteristics such as sex, race and eye color. But can genes also determine whether people will get divorced, how __6__ they are, or what career they are likely to choose? A concern of psychological scientists is the __7__ to which all of these characteristics are influenced by nature and nurture(养育), by genetic makeup and the environment. Increasingly, science __8__ that genes lay the groundwork for many human traits. From this perspective, people are born __9__ like undeveloped photographs: The image is already captured, but the way it __10__ appears can vary based on the development process. However, the basic picture is there from the beginning.

[A] abilities
[B] achieve
[C] appeal
[D] complaints
[E] contributions
[F] displayed
[G] essentially
[H] eventually
[I] extent
[J] indicates
[K] proceeds
[L] psychological
[M] raised
[N] smart
[O] standard


1. [M] raised raise在这里的意思是"养育",the environment in which you were raised 意思是"你成长的环境"。

2. [L] psychological "psychological activity"意思是"心理活动",全句意思是"研究基因和外部环境如何相互作用影响人心理活动的学科被称为行为遗传学"。

3. [E] contributions "make contributions to"为固定搭配,意为"为……做贡献"。

4. [A] abilities "ability to …"意思是"做某事的能力",在此处,全句意思是"任何一篇宣称人类做出某种行为的能力是基于生物学的研究都是有争议的"。

5. [B] achieve "limitations to what you can achieve"意思是"对你所能达到的水平的限制"。

6. [N] smart 此处需填一个形容词,而且用来形容人,根据题意,smart符合题意,表示"机灵,可爱"。

7. [I] extent 此处填extent,主要是因为后面有to,"to the extent …"译为"……的程度"。

8. [J] indicates indicate 意思是"表明,显示"。全句意为"越来越多的科学(现象)表明基因对人类很多特征有基础作用"。

9. [G] essentially essentially 的意思是"实际上,本质上"。全句意为"从这个角度来讲,人一出生,本质上就像是还没洗出来的照片:相已经照了,但是最终会呈现多少就在于显影的过程了"。

10. [H] eventually eventually 副词,意思是"最终,最后"。