Culture is one of the most challenging elements of the international marketplace. 『This system of learned behavior patterns characteristic of the members of a given society is constantly shaped by a set of dynamic variables: language, religion, values and attitudes, manners and customs, aesthetics, technology, education, and social institutions.』① To cope with this system, an international manager needs both factual and interpretive knowledge of culture. To some extent, the factual knowledge can be learned; its interpretation comes only through experience.
The most complicated problems in dealing with the cultural environment stem from the fact that one cannot learn culture—one has to live it. Two schools of thought exist in the business world on how to deal with cultural diversity. One is that business is business the world around, following the model of Pepsi and McDonald’s. In some cases, globalization is a fact of life; however, cultural differences are still far from converging.
The other school proposes that companies must tailor business approaches to individual cultures. Setting up policies and procedures in each country has been compared to an organ transplant; the critical question centers around acceptance or rejection. The major challenge to the international manager is to make sure that rejection is not a result of cultural myopia or even blindness.
Fortune examined the international performance of a dozen large companies that earn 20 percent or more of their revenue overseas. The internationally successful companies all share an important quality: patience. They have not rushed into situations but rather built their operations carefully by following the most basic business principles. These principles are to know your adversary, know your audience, and know your customer.
1. According to the passage, which of the following is true?
A. All international managers can learn culture.
B. Business diversity is not necessary.
C. Views differ on how to treat culture in business world.
D. Most people do not know foreign culture well.
2. According to the author, the model of Pepsi ______.
A. is in line with the theories of the school advocating the business is business the world around
B. is different from the model of McDonald’s
C. shows the reverse of globalization
D. has converged cultural differences
3. The two schools of thought ______.
A. both propose that companies should tailor business approaches to individual cultures
B. both advocate that different policies be set up in different countries
C. admit the existence of cultural diversity in business world
D. Both A and B
4. This article is supposed to be most useful for those ______.
A. who are interested in researching the topic of cultural diversity
B. who have connections to more than one type of culture
C. who want to travel abroad
D. who want to run business on International Scale
5. According to Fortune, successful international companies ______.
A. earn 20 percent or more of their revenue overseas
B. all have the quality of patience
C. will follow the overseas local cultures
D. adopt the policy of internationalization
1. dynamic adj. 动态的
2. variable n. 变量
3. aesthetics n. 美学
4. factual adj. 事实的
5. interpretative adj. 解释的
6. converge v. 聚合
7. transplant v. 移植
8. myopia n. 近视
9. adversary n. 对手
①【解析】此句虽然很长，但考生只要认清它的主干，就很容易了解本句的意思。这个句子为一个简单句，主语为：“this system”，谓语为“is shaped”。
1. C 推断题。意为“对在商业中怎样对待文化有着不同意见”。 文化在商业中是一个很具挑战性的因素。不同的国家与地区可能会有不同的文化体系。在商业中，应该怎样对待不同的文化，商业界存在着不同的看法。
2. A 细节题。意为“……与同意世界商业一体化的派别的主张是一致的”。 Pepsi采纳的是国际化的商业风格，这与那些主张国际化的派别的意见是相一致的。
3. C 推断题。意为“承认商业世界中文化的多元性”。两个派别都承认商业世界中文化的多元性。他们的不同在于，应该对待不同的文化，应该搞国际化还是对不同的文化采取不同的策略。
4. D 主旨题。由文中的例子可以知道，作者主要关心的并不是研究多种文化形态，而是文化背景对商业运作的影响。所以D是正确答案。
5. B 细节题。意为“都具有耐心这一素质”。并非所有成功的国际公司的海外收入都占总收入的20%或以上。它们也不一定全都接纳海外的当地文化，或是采纳国际化策略。