Choice of Words 词汇的选择

English words are characteristic of polysemy and polysemous words often share more than one part of speech, which takes time to determine the fixed meaning and its given part of speech in the certain context, and even more time to makes final decision of the Chinese equivalence to the original word.
英语单词有着一词多义的特性,而且多义词往往可以在句子中起到不同作用,这就需要我们花时间考虑在某段特定的文章中,该单词是什么意思,在句子中扮演怎样的角色。至于最终决定如何将它翻译成对应的中文则要花费更多时间。

After the through analysis of the original syntax and the general idea of the original text, choice of words becomes the determining factor to a good translation.
在透彻地分析过句法以及原文大意后,对于译文所用词汇的选择就成了译文好坏的决定性因素。

• The word "and" seems easy enough, the actual practice, however, is very different from what as one might imagine.
• "and"一词看上去再简单不过,但是在实际翻译过程中,它却和我们所想象的大相径庭:

1. War and Peace
战争与和平

2. eat and drink
吃吃喝喝

3. to work arduously and skillfully
苦干加巧干

4. The girls came over talking and laughing.
姑娘们有说有笑(又说又笑)地走过来。

5. She is the Party Secretary and manager as well.
她是党委书记兼经理。

6. It was not easy to carry such a heavy load, and during the dog days.
扛这么重的东西很不容易,更何况这么热的天呢。

7. The earth rotates and it revolves.
地球一面自转,一面公转。

8. The sun came out and the grass dried.
日出草干。

9. Reading the text many times and you will be able to recite it.
课文多读几遍,你就会背了。

10. He came here by bike and I walked here.
他是骑车来的,而我是步行来的。

11. He did it, and did it well.
他做了,而且做得不错。

12. They talked and talked until small hours.
他们谈啊谈啊,一直谈到次日凌晨。

13. many and many a time
三番五次,许多次。

14. They walked two and two.
他们成双成对走过。

15. There are men and men (books and books).
各式各样的人(书)。

To have every word well expressed in Chinese, one must acquaint himself with rhetoric, especially the passive rhetoric whose essential work is to have words well-chosen which is just in agreement with the key link of expression in translation. Whether a word is well-chosen affects greatly the accuracy of expression. For example:
要想用中文很好地表达出每个词,你必须熟悉修辞,尤其是消极修辞。消极修辞主要是确保挑选出来的词能够同译文中主要环节的表达一致。词汇选得好不好对表达的准确性影响很大,例如:

good will
善意

good wife
贤妻

good look
美貌

good gold
真金

good year
丰年

good mother
慈母

good friend
好友

good heart
好心

good sense
褒义

good teacher
良师

good neighbor
高邻

good match
劲敌,匹敌

good deeds
善举,善事

good points
优点,长处

good husband
尽职的丈夫

练一练:翻译下面这段英文,注意词汇的选择。

Although schoolmistresses letters are to be trusted no more nor less than churchyard epitaphs, yet as it sometimes happens that a person departs this life, who is really deserving of all the praises the stone-cutter carves over his bones; who is a good Christian, a good parent, child, wife or husband; who actually does leave a disconsolate family to mourn his less; so in academies of the male and female sex it occurs every now and then, that the pupil is fully worthy of the praises bestowed by the disinterested instructor.
一般说来,校长的信和墓志铭一样靠不住, 不过偶尔也有几个死去的人配得起石匠们刻在他们朽骨上的好话。他们的确是虔诚的教徒、慈爱的家长、孝顺的儿女、尽职的丈夫、贤良的妻子,家人也的确哀思绵绵地追悼他们。同样,不论在男生还是女生校园,偶然也有一两个学生配得起老师毫无私心的称赞。