介词

金牌要点:
“英语是介词和动词的语言”,由此可见,掌握介词的用法何其重要。

学习介词的最好方法是要弄清楚介词与介词之间位置上的关系,请参考下图:

I.分类:

1.常用简单介词:
about, across, against, among, after, at, behind, besides, beyond, by, concerning, beneath, between, despite, except, during, down, for, from, past, than, under, until 等。

2.合成介词:
inside, outside, onto, out of, within 等。

3.短语介词:
according to, ahead of, along with, as for, because of, be means of, due to, in spite of, on behalf of, owing to, with regard to 等。

II.介词与“……的”之关系:

在英语学习中,一遇到“……的”,大家就会立刻想到’s 所有格或者of。实际上,在很多情况下,“……的”必须借助于介词才能准确表达。

以下请同学们重复记忆:
● 美国的冬天→ the winter in America
● 停车场的入口→ the entrance to the parking lot
● 穿过森林的小路→ the path through the forest
● 鲁迅的著作→ the works by Lu Xun
● 水中的月亮→ the moon reflected in water
● 历史的见证→ the witness to history
● 对爱的渴望→ a longing for love
● 对我们不利的证据→ the evidence against us
● 阳光下的漫步→ a walk in the sunlight
● 追求名誉的女人→ a lady after fame
● 两人之间的争论→ an argument between the two persons

重要介词的重要用法:

(1)from:此介词表示“to”相反的方向。
He came from London.
He went to London.

二词常搭配使用“from... to...”
We studied English from morning to afternoon.
He'll start from Beijing to Shanghai.

经典用法:
● 由于→ The girl is trembling from fear.
● 免除→ Tramps are always free from care. 流浪汉们总是无忧无虑。
● 分开→ The couple parted from each other at the airport.
● 由……制成→ The red wine is made from grapes. 红葡萄酒是由葡萄制成的。

由from引导的惯用法:
from far 从远处
from now / then on 从现在/那时起
from bad to worse 每况愈下
from time to time(occasionally 时而)

习语:
She comes to visit me from time to time.

(2)out of:表示与"into"相反的语意。
He will be out of town.
I stepped out of the dark room.

out of+ 名词 (= lack, to be without 用完,用光)
He went to the shop because he was out of paper.

out of date (= old-fashioned 过时的)
The book has been out of date.

out of work (= jobless 失业的)
He needs money because be is out of work.

out of the question (= impossible 不可能的)
Finishing the hard work is out of the question.

out of question (= doubtless 毫无疑问的)
That he can do it well is out of question.

out of order(= not functioning 失灵的)
Her radio is out of order, so she can't listen to it.

(3)by:表示从旁经过或在……附近。
He passed by me without saying hello.
He lives by the sea.

经典用法:
● 通过→This is the nearest road by which they came.
● 在……时候→The young man works by day and steals money by night.
● 由……所生→He has two sons by her second wife.
● 抓住→She caught her child by his coat in the flood.
● 按……计算→The farmers sell their apples by the pound.
● 就(气质,特征)而言→He is an artist by temperament(气质).

用于被动语意,导出动作执行者:
The glass was broken by the boy.

by + 具体时间:
They usually have dinner by 8 o'clock.

by + 交通工具 (bus, train, plan...):
He travelled to Paris by air/plane.

by the end of + 时间名词:到……末为止
By the end of last year, they had learnt 100 texts.
By the end of this term, they will have learnt 100 texts.

by then:到那时
He will graduate in 1999, by then he will leave Beijing.

by way of (= via):经由,取道
They are going to the United States by way of Hong Kong.

by the way:顺便问
By the way, do you know where Mr. Li has gone?

by far:……得多(用于修饰比较级和最高级)
The book is by far the best on the subject.

by accident:不小心,与on purpose(故意地)语意相反
The wrong information was put into the computer by accident.